Wolves have been a constant in human consciousness, whether they are considered supernatural beings, nurturers and guides for humankind, or powerful or malevolent predators. Attitudes toward wolves in Western Christian societies have been overwhelmingly negative due to perceptions of wolves as preying upon souls and flocks. Pre-modern Turco-Mongolian views of wolves were generally positive, as she-wolves, ancestral deities, or guides for nomadic warriors, even after conversion to Islam. This Turco-Mongolian perspective allows the wolves some protection against human aggression in Turkic and Mongolian regions in the present.
BeckwithC. I.The Tibetan empire in Central Asia: A history of the struggle for great power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs and Chinese during the early Middle Ages1993PrincetonPrinceton University Press
The Tibetan empire in Central Asia: A history of the struggle for great power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs and Chinese during the early Middle Ages
1993PrincetonPrinceton University Press)| false
BoratavP. N.BearmanP.BianquisT.BosworthC. E.van DonzelE.HeinrichsW. P.
Encyclopaedia of Islam
20142nd ed.Retrieved from http://referenceworks.brillonline.com.subzero.lib.uoguelph.ca/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/ergenekon-SIM_2198)| false