Not Wild about Wildlife Protection? The Perceived Harmfulness, Wrongfulness, and Seriousness of Wildlife Crimes

in Society & Animals
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to explore the perceived harmfulness, wrongfulness, and seriousness of wildlife crimes, such as illegal or unlicensed hunting or fishing. Research questions included how offenses against wildlife are perceived, compared to offenses against persons and property, and how perceptions of harmfulness and wrongfulness impact perceptions of wildlife offense seriousness. A survey modeled after previous studies of crime seriousness was administered to a college student sample. The results showed that wildlife offenses were ranked as less serious, harmful, and wrong than those against persons and property, and also less than those against companion animals and animals on farms. Perceived wrongfulness and harmfulness were significant predictors of perceived seriousness of wildlife offenses, with wrongfulness being the stronger predictor. Results are contextualized within theoretical frameworks that offer insights as to why wildlife crime is not viewed as seriously as other offense types.

Sections
References
  • AllenM.HunstoneM.WaerstadJ.FoyE.HobbinsT.WiknerB. & WirrelJ. (2002). Human-to-animal similarity and participant mood influence punishment recommendations for animal abusers. Society & Animals10267-284. doi:10.1163/156853002320770074

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BeirneP. (1999). For a nonspeciesist criminology: Animal abuse as an object of study. Criminology37117-148. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00481.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ceballos G. Ehrlich P. R. & Dirzo R. (2017). Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 114 E6089-E6096. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704949114

  • ClemensM. S. (2017). Cecil the lion: The everlasting impact on the conservation and protection of the king of the jungle. Villanova Environmental Law Journal2851-69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenJ. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • CrowM. S.ShellyT. O. & StreteskyP. B. (2013). Camouflage-collar crime: An examination of wildlife crime and characteristics of offenders in Florida. Deviant Behavior34635-652. doi:10.1080/01639625.2012.759049

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DevlinP. (1977). Morals and the criminal law. In K. Kipnis (Ed.) Philosophical issues in law (pp. 54-65). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. (Original work published 1965).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DicksonB. (2009). The ethics of recreational hunting. In B. DicksonJ. Hutton & W. M. Adams (Eds.) Recreational hunting conservation and rural livelihoods (pp. 59-72). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DukesR. L. (2007). Comparative seriousness of abuse of children and companion animals. Psychological Reports101767-770. doi:10.2466/pr0.101.3.667-770

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EliasonS. L. (2003a). Illegal hunting and angling: The neutralization of wildlife law violations. Society & Animals11225-243. doi:10.1163/156853003322773032

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EliasonS. L. (2003b). Throwing the book versus cutting some slack: Factors influencing the use of discretion by game wardens in Kentucky. Deviant Behavior24129-152. doi:10.1080/01639620390117219

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EliasonS. L. (2007). From wildlife specialist to police generalist? The scope of nonwildlife violations encountered by conversation officers. Southwest Journal of Criminal Justice4120-132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EliasonS. L. (2008). Wildlife crime: Conservation officers’ perceptions of elusive poachers. Deviant Behavior29111128. doi:10.1080/01639620701457808

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FalconeD. (2004). America’s conservation police: Agencies in transition. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management2756-66. doi:10.1108/13639510410519912

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FilteauM. R. (2012). Deterring defiance: ‘Don’t give a poacher a reason to poach’. International Journal of Rural Criminology1236-255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreyfogleE. T. & GobleD. D. (2009). Wildlife law: A primer. Washington, DC: Island Press.

  • Geer v. Connecticut 161 U.S. 519. (1896).

  • GibbonsD. C. (1972). Crime in the hinterland. Criminology10177-191. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1972.tb00552.x

  • Green G. S. Phillips H. J. & Black S. K. (1988). The Georgia deer jacker. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 42 558-565.

  • HardinG. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science1621243-1248. doi:10.1126/science.162.3859.1243

  • HartH. L. A. (1958). Positivism and the separation of law and morals. Harvard Law Review71593-629.

  • HenryB. (2006). Empathy, home environment, and attitudes toward animals in relation to animal abuse. Anthrozoös1917-34.

  • Lacey Act 16 U.S.C. § 3371-3378. (1900).

  • Lanham C. M. (2014). Exploring the responsibilities of wildlife law enforcement officers: An examination of citations issued by Kentucky Conservation Officers (Doctoral dissertation Eastern Kentucky University). Retrieved from http://encompass.eku.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1211&context=etd.

  • LevinJ.ArlukeA. & IrvineL. (2017). Are people more disturbed by dog or human suffering? Influence of victim’s species and age. Society & Animals251-16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarcotB. G. & Vander HeydenM. (2001). Key ecological functions of wildlife species. In D. H. Johnson & T. A. O’Neill (Eds.) Wildlife-habitat relationships in Oregon and Washington (pp. 168-186). Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MayC. (2017). Transnational crime and the developing world. Washington, DC: Global Financial Integrity. Retrieved from http://www.gfintegrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Transnational_Crime-final.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Migratory Bird Treaty Act 16 U.S.C. § 703-712. (1918).

  • Missouri v. Holland 252 U.S. 416. (1920).

  • MurrayG. G. R.SoaresA. E. R.NovakB. J.SchaeferN. K.CahillJ. A.BakerA. J. ... ShapiroB. (2017). Natural selection shaped the rise and fall of passenger pigeon genomic diversity. Science358951-954. doi:10.1126/science.aao0960

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MuthR. M. (1998). The persistence of poaching in advanced industrialized society: Meanings and motivations—an introductory comment. Society & Natural Resources115-7. doi:10.1080/08941929809381057

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OwenS. S.FradellaH. F.BurkeT. W. & JoplinJ. J. (2015). Foundations of criminal justice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PalmerC. E. & BryantC. D. (1985). Keepers of the king’s deer: Game wardens and the enforcement of fish and wildlife law. In C. D. BryantD. W. ShoemakerJ. K. SkipperJr. & W. E. Snizek (Eds.) The rural workforce: Non-agricultural occupations in America (pp. 111-137). South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Harvey.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RosenmerkelS. P. (2001). Wrongfulness and Harmfulness as components of seriousness of white-collar offenses. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice17308-327. doi:10.1177/1043986201017004002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SellinT. & WolfgangM. (1964). The measurement of delinquency. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith (Reprinted in 1978 with an introduction by S. Turner).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShellyT. O.ChiricosT. & GertzM. (2011). What about the environment? Assessing the perceived seriousness of environmental crime. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice35307-325. doi: 10.1080/01924036.2011.625234

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SimsV.ChinM. & YordonR. (2007). Don’t be cruel: Assessing beliefs about punishments for crimes against animals. Anthrozoös20251-259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StylianouS. (2002). Control attitudes toward drug use as a function of paternalistic and moralistic principles. Journal of Drug Issues32119-152. doi:10.1177/002204260203200106

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StylianouS. (2003). Measuring crime seriousness perceptions: What have we learned and what else do we want to know. Journal of Criminal Justice3137-56. doi:10.1016/S0047-2352(02)00198-00198

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SykesG. M. & MatzaD. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review22664-670.

  • TaylorA. (1999). Magpies monkeys and morals: What philosophers say about animal liberation. Orchard Park, NY: Broadview.

  • TimmonsM. (2002). Moral theory: An introduction. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

  • TobiasM. (1998). Nature’s keepers: On the front lines of the fight to save wildlife in America. New York, NY: Wiley.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2014). 2011 national survey of fishing hunting and wildlife-associated recreation. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/fhw11-nat.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. v. Wallen No. 16-30033 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. (2017).

  • UsmanJ. O. (2009). The game is afoot: Constitutionalizing the right to hunt and fish in the Tennessee Constitution. Tennessee Law Review7757-109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WagnerK.OwenS. & BurkeT. (2015). What makes a crime? The perceived harmfulness, wrongfulness, and seriousness of offenses against nonhuman animals. Society & Animals23439-461. doi:10.1163/15685306-12341373

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WarrM. (1989). What is the perceived seriousness of crimes? Criminology27795-814. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1989.tb01055.x

  • WolfeN. T. (1981). Mala in se: A disappearing doctrine? Criminology19131-143.

Figures
Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 75 75 42
Full Text Views 11 11 7
PDF Downloads 10 10 5
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0