Nonhuman Animal Behavioral Phenomena are Central to the Emerging Concept of Intangible Natural Heritage

in Society & Animals
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Intangible natural heritage is a concept that has been addressed in several publications and that offers a new and expanded view onto world heritage conservation. However, the difference from intangible cultural heritage has not been clearly defined. One distinction in the categories of world heritage that are established in international conventions appears where “the intangible” is not created by humans but by a nonhuman animal. Living organisms sustain human life materially and provide inspiration to humans, both in their material form and by displaying behaviors, or via observable, yet not tangible, dynamic phenomena and processes. This includes migration patterns, aggregations, vocalizations or the formation of symbiotic and mutualistic inter-species relationships. Given the non-material character of these elements, their transmission by nonhuman living beings, and their importance to human culture, it is proposed that such phenomena are considered as intangible natural heritage sensu stricto in the discourse of world heritage.

Nonhuman Animal Behavioral Phenomena are Central to the Emerging Concept of Intangible Natural Heritage

in Society & Animals



AharoniI. (1938). On some animals mentioned in the Bible. Osiris5461-478.

AkermanK. (1998). A rock painting, possibly of the now extinct marsupial Thylacoleo (marsupial lion), from the north Kimberley, Western Australia. The Beagle Records of the Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory14117-121.

AlbertiR. (1976). The lost grove. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

AlbertiR. (1982 [1959]). La arboleda perdida. Barcelona, Spain: Ed. Bruguera.

BanksJ. (2011 [1896]). Journal of the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks Bart. K.B. P.R.S.: During Captain Cook’s first voyage in HMS Endeavour in 1768-71 to Terra Del Fuego Otahite New Zealand Australia the Dutch East Indies Etc. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

BertauP. (2014). Die Bedeutung historischer Vogelnamen—SingvögelVol. 2. Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

BleischB.GeissmannT.TimminsR. J. & XuelongJ. (2008). Nomascus concolor. The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2014.3.

BodsworthF. (1991). Last of the curlews. Toronto, Canada: New Canadian Library.

BorgesJ. L. (1977). Obras completas: 1923-1972. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ultramar.

Bouchenaki M. (2003). The interdependency of tangible and intangible cultural heritage: Keynote address ICOMOS 14th General Assembly and Scientific Symposium.

BowdenS. (2008). The theming magpie: The influence of birdsong on Beethoven motifs. The Musical Times149(1903) 17-35.

BryantC. A. (1913). The passenger pigeon. Forest and Stream80(16) 494514-515.

CarbonellE. (2012). The Catalan fishermen’s traditional knowledge of climate and the weather: A distinctive way of relating to nature. International Journal of Intangible Heritage761-75.

CarsonR. L. (1962). The silent spring. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

ChekeA. & HumeJ. P. (2010). Lost land of the dodo: The ecological history of Mauritius Réunion and Rodrigues. London, United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing.

CokinosC. (2001). Hope is the thing with feathers: A personal chronicle of vanished birds. New York, NY: Warner Books.

ColumbusC. (1961). Diario de navegación. La Habana: Comision nacional cubana de la UNESCO.

CristE. (2008). Cloning in restorative perspective. In M. Hall (Ed.) Restoration and History: The search for a usable environmental past (pp. 284-292). New York, NY: Rutgers University Press.

CristE. (2014). Ptolemaic environmentalism. In G. WuerthnerE. Crist & T. Butler (Eds.) Keeping the wild. Against the domestication of the earth. Washington, DC: Island Press.

D’ArcyP. (2006). The people of the sea: Environment identity and history in Oceania. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

DauenhauerR. (2013). Gift of Bohemian waxwings. In R. DauenhauerNew and selected poems 1963-2013. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press.

DavisJ. E. (2009). An Everglades providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the American environmental century. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

De FlacourtE. (1658). Histoire de la grande Isle Madagascar. Paris, France: A. Lesselin.

DerrM. & MorrowW. (1989). Some kind of paradise: A chronicle of man and the land in Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

DorfmanE. (2012). Intangible heritage: An introduction. In E. Dorfman (Ed.) Intangible natural heritage: New perspectives on natural objects (pp. 1-15). New York, NY: Routledge.

DorfmanE. & CardingJ. (2012). Towards a unified concept of intangible natural heritage. In E. Dorfman (Ed.) Intangible natural heritage: New perspectives on natural objects (pp. 160-177). New York, NY: Routledge.

EllisR. (2013). The empty ocean. Washington, DC: Island Press.

ExquemelinA. O. (1969). The buccaneers of America translated by Alexis Brown. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

FallonR. (2007). The record of realism in Messiaen’s bird style. In C. Dingle & N. Simeone (Eds.) Olivier Messiaen: Music art and literature (pp. 115-136). Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing.

FauvelJ.FloodR. & WilsonR. J. (2006). Music and mathematics: From Pythagoras to fractals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

FischerS. R. (2005). Island at the end of the world: The turbulent history of Easter Island. London: Reaktion Books.

FriedmannH. (1955). The honeyguides. United States National Museum Bulletin 208. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

GöbelG. (1877). Länger als ein Menschenleben in Missouri. St. Louis, MO: C. Witter’s Buchhandlung.

GrossA. O. (1931). Banding the last heath hen. Bird-Banding2(3) 99-105.

GrossA. O. (1932). Heath hen. In A. C. Bent (Ed.) Life histories of North American gallinaceous birds. United States National Museum Bulletin 162 (pp. 264-280). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

HarleyE. H.KnightM. H.LardnerC.WoodingB. & GregorM. (2009). The Quagga project: Progress over 20 years of selective breeding. South African Journal of Wildlife Research39(2) 155-163.

HarriganS. (1999). Roseate spoonbills Ajaja ajaja. In J. P. O’Neill & S. Winckler (Eds.) Great Texas birds (p. 22). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

HeadM. (1997). Birdsong and the origins of music. Journal of the Royal Musical Association122(1) 1-23.

HeckH. (1951). The breeding-back of the aurochs. Oryx1(3) 117-122.

HoekstraD. (2010). Fresco: Intangible heritage as a key to unlocking the links between the conservation of biological and cultural diversity in Alamos. International Journal of Intangible Heritage5(2010) 69.

HofmannI. (1978). Welches Tier lieferte die biblischen Tachasch-Felle? Anthropos73(1/2) 49-68.

JinX. & YenA. L. (2012). Poetically, man dwells with crickets: Nature and culture of Chinese singing insects. In E. Dorfman (Ed.) Intangible natural heritage: New perspectives on natural objects (pp. 125-138). New York, NY: Routledge.

JohnsonC. Y. (2014). Long-extinct heath hen comes to life in archival film. Boston GlobeMarch 6th.

JonesW. E. (1986). Genetic recreation of wild horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science6(5) 246-249.

KaufmanN. (2009). Protecting storyscapes. In E. Dorfman (Ed.) Intangible natural heritage: New perspectives on natural objects (pp. 38-74). New York, NY: Routledge.

KaufmanN. (2013). Putting intangible heritage in its place(s): Proposals for policy and practice. International Journal of Intangible Heritage819-35.

KerrJ. & SmithD. (2005). DNA samples too degraded for museum to revive Tassie tiger. Sydney Morning HeraldFebruary 16th.

KircherA. (1650). Musurgia Universalis. Rome, Italy: Franceso Corbelletti.

LowenthalD. (2005). Natural and cultural heritage. International Journal of Heritage Studies11(1) 81-92.

MontgomeryG. G. & SunquistM. E. (1974). Contact-distress calls of young sloths. Journal of Mammalogy55(1) 211-213.

NorrisA. (2012). The intangible roots of our tangible heritage. In E. Dorfman (Ed.) Intangible natural heritage: New perspectives on natural objects (pp. 16-42). New York, NY: Routledge.

Pina-AguilarR. E. (2009). Revival of extinct species using nuclear transfer: Hope for the mammoth, true for the Pyrenean ibex, but is it time for conservation cloning? Cloning and Stem Cells11(3) 341-346.

PooleJ. H.TyackP. L.Stoeger-HorwathA. S. & WatwoodS. (2005). Animal behaviour: Elephants are capable of vocal learning. Nature434(7032) 455-456.

PyleR. M. (1993). The thunder tree: Lessons from an urban wildland. Boston, MA, and New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.

Reichel-DolmatoffG. (1989). Desana texts and contexts: Origin myths and tales of a Tukanoan tribe of the Colombian northwest Amazon. In Acta Ethnologica et LinguisticaNo. 62Series Americana 12Vienna-Föhrenau. Austria: Stiglmayr.

RobischonM. (2012). Vom Verstummen der Welt. München, Germany: Oekom.

RothschildW. (1907). Extinct birds: An attempt to unite in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times: That is within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist but are on the verge of extinction. London, United Kingdom: Hutchinson & Co.

SnyderN. F. R. (2004). The Carolina parakeet: Glimpses of a vanished bird. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

StottropU. (2012). Terra cognita, down and under, living stones and the sound of stones: Reflections on four exhibitions. In E. Dorfman (Ed.) Intangible natural heritage: New perspectives on natural objects (pp. 139-159). New York, NJ: Routledge.

ThinhV. N.HallamC.RoosC. & HammerschmidtK. (2011). Concordance between vocal and genetic diversity in crested gibbons. BMC Evolutionary Biology1136.

TilsonR.DefuH.MuntiferingJ. & Nyhus P. J. (2004). Dramatic decline of wild South China tigers Panthera tigris amoyensis: Field survey of priority tiger reserves. Oryx38(1) 40-47.

TurnbullC. M. (1961). The forest people. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

UNESCO. (1972). Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. Paris, France: UNESCO.

UNESCO. (2003). Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. Paris, France: UNESCO.

Van GulikR. (1967). The gibbon in China. An essay in Chinese animal lore. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill.

WarrenR. P.WatkinsF. C. & HeirsJ. T. (1980). Robert Penn Warren talking: Interviews 1950-1978. New York, NY: Random House.

WeiW. & HintonD. (2006). The selected poems of Wang Wei. New York, NY: New Directions Publishing.

WilcoveD. S. & WikelskiM. (2008). Going, going, gone: Is animal migration disappearing? PLoS Biology6(7) e188. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060188.

YongE. (2013). Resurrecting the extinct frog with a stomach for a womb. National Geographic.


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 23 23 12
Full Text Views 37 37 28
PDF Downloads 2 2 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0