This paper explores the teaching of natural science subjects in high schools associated with the Gülen-Hizmet movement in Turkey. It focuses on the apparent reconciliation of scientific learning in a pervasive, albeit unofficial, Sunni Islamic religious culture. The framework for such an accommodation is found in the teachings of Fethullah Gülen and his predecessor, Said Nursi. Following Nursi, Gülen encourages scientific pursuit, and intellectual knowledge in general, as a pious and spiritually meritorious act. Drawing on fieldwork conducted at two Hizmet-affiliated high schools in Turkey, this article explores the “sanctification” of science and learning in the Gülen Movement by highlighting the principle of fedakarlık (self-sacrifice), as the primary motivation of the teaching staff. Focusing also on the schools’ highly disciplined and competitive learning environments (as exemplified in preparations for the prestigious International Science Olympiads), the article suggests that although teacher commitment and prestigious competitive awards bolster the Hizmet schools’ market competitiveness, they fail in actually producing students who pursue careers in natural science fields. By contrast, this article concludes that the movement’s engagement with science, at least at present, is less interested in furthering scientific inquiry than it is in equipping what Gülen has called a ‘Golden Generation’ with the tools it needs to compete with secularist rivals in Turkey.*
KocabaşÖzlem (2006). “Scientific Careers and Ideological Profiles of Science Olympiad Participants from Fethullah Gülen and other Secondary Schools in Turkey.” [Unpublished MA thesis]. Ankara: Middle East Technical University.
According to Weber (1947) the emergence of charismatic authority figures is contingent partly upon there being a sense of crisis (Klaus 2006). Gülen’s “creation” of a sense of worldwide crisis brought about by unbelief and moral degeneration provides a context for his emergence as a charismatic leader. For more on Gülen’s charisma see Hendrick 2013: 78-88.