Toward a Theory of “Islamist Movements”

in Sociology of Islam
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I differentiate conceptually between Islamist and other religious movements directed towards religious and political institutions and, for each of these, between movements that endeavor to transform (1) role relationships, (2) collectivity structures, (3) normative expectations, and (4) value orientations in these institutions. I construct a value-added theory that specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions generating each of these types of movements. Movements are directed at one of these components of social action dependent on the nature of strain present for actors within the system. Their direction is guided by the nature of the opportunity structure present in the social order under examination. Religious disorders, religious movements that violate institutionalized norms and attempt to reconstruct one or more aspects of an institutionalized religious structure, emerge when religious value-commitments and obligations are deflated and actors adopt a calculating orientation towards them. A parallel set of religious movements that do not violate institutionalized norms will emerge when all of the variables are present except a deflation of value-commitments.

Toward a Theory of “Islamist Movements”

in Sociology of Islam

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References

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  • 32

    In Gould 1987I discuss in some detail the relationship between a “subculture of delinquency” (Matza 1964) and a “delinquent subculture” (Cloward and Ohlin 1960) arguing that the second emerges from the first. In the first delinquent acts are neutralized and intermittent; in the second they are legitimated and routinized. See also Gould 2005.

  • 41

    In Gould 1976 and 1987:ch 2 I generalize Keynesian macroeconomic theory to specify the conditions generating the deflation and inflation of power. I do not have the space to include here a respecification of that theory to value-commitments; an elementary discussion is available in a more technical version of this paper which is available from the author.

  • 42

    In Gould 1987I analyze a political paradox of thrift demonstrating that “law and order” policies are in the long run inimical to order through law (44–45).

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    Types of Disorder*

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    Revised interchange paradigm.

    Key:

    All symbols are explicated in the appendix to this chapter or in footnote 52.

    Inner exchanges are product exchanges; outer exchanges are factor exchanges.

    The first symbol in each parenthesis refers to the medium in control of the output. The second symbol refers to the discussions within part two of this chapter. For example: “Value based claims to loyalty (Mi, Ii)” refer to (Influence, Investment input to integrative subsystem). The reader will note some overlap in terminology, e.g., “I,” for integrative subsystem and investment. These overlaps were unavoidable unless standard conventions were thrown to the winds. Meanings should be clear within contexts.

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