I differentiate conceptually between Islamist and other religious movements directed towards religious and political institutions and, for each of these, between movements that endeavor to transform (1) role relationships, (2) collectivity structures, (3) normative expectations, and (4) value orientations in these institutions. I construct a value-added theory that specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions generating each of these types of movements. Movements are directed at one of these components of social action dependent on the nature of strain present for actors within the system. Their direction is guided by the nature of the opportunity structure present in the social order under examination. Religious disorders, religious movements that violate institutionalized norms and attempt to reconstruct one or more aspects of an institutionalized religious structure, emerge when religious value-commitments and obligations are deflated and actors adopt a calculating orientation towards them. A parallel set of religious movements that do not violate institutionalized norms will emerge when all of the variables are present except a deflation of value-commitments.
—. 1976b. “Introduction: Part IV: Generalized Media in Action.” Pp. 448–469 in Explorations in General Theory in Social Science vol. 2 edited by LoubserJ. J.BaumR. C. EffratA. and LidzV. M.. New York: Free Press.
—. 1976. “Systems Analysis, Macrosociology, and the Generalized Media of Social Action.” Pp. 470–506 in Explorations in General Theory in the Social Sciences vol. 2 edited by LoubserJ. J.BaumR. C.EffratA. and LidzV. M.. New York: Free Press.
—. 2001a. “The Generalized Media of Communication and the Logic of Cultural Intelligibility: Macro and Micro Analyses in Luhmann, Habermas and Parsons.” Pp. 119–146 in Parsons’ The Structure of Social Action and Contemporary Debates edited by G. Pollini and G. Sciortino. Milan: Franco Angeli.
—. 2001b. “Social Norms: A Critique of Law and Economics Formulations and a Guide to their Correct Conceptualization.” Presented at the Joint Meeting of the Law and Society Association and the Research Committee on the Sociology of Law International Sociological Association.
—. 2013b. “God and the Problem of Order: the Role of Perfect Information and Absolute Power in Economics, Religion and Law.” RIMCIS - International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences2:257–272.
LuhmannNiklas. 1976. “Generalized Media and the Problem of Contingency.” in Explorations in General Theory in the Social Sciences vol. 2 edited by LoubserJ. J.BaumR. C.EffratA. and LidzV. M.. New York: Free Press.
In Gould1987I discuss in some detail the relationship between a “subculture of delinquency” (Matza 1964) and a “delinquent subculture” (Cloward and Ohlin 1960) arguing that the second emerges from the first. In the first delinquent acts are neutralized and intermittent; in the second they are legitimated and routinized. See also Gould 2005.
In Gould 1976 and1987:ch 2 I generalize Keynesian macroeconomic theory to specify the conditions generating the deflation and inflation of power. I do not have the space to include here a respecification of that theory to value-commitments; an elementary discussion is available in a more technical version of this paper which is available from the author.
In Gould1987I analyze a political paradox of thrift demonstrating that “law and order” policies are in the long run inimical to order through law (44–45).