Post-Islamist Transformations in Morocco

Collaboration and Competition between Salafist Activists, Muslim Democrats, and Authoritarian Monarchy

In: Sociology of Islam
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Arizona

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€25.00$30.00

This article explores the continuities and ruptures of modern Islamic social movements starting with the reformist salafiyya of Egypt, North Africa, and the Levant, moving through the Islamic political activism of the Muslim Brotherhood along with its various affiliated political parties in the Middle East and North Africa (mena), and finally the radical Jihadist militant groups calling for armed insurgency in parts of the mena as well as globally. After an extensive overview of the varied movements within Salafism in its global context, I will hone in on its articulation in Morocco, its relations with other Islamist movements, as well as with the Moroccan monarchical authoritarian system. I argue that in the wake of post-Islamist adopting of human rights discourse and notions of pluralism in the workings of the Justice and Development Party (pjd) government, the Salafi trend is also undertaking a transformation in Morocco. Placed in its historical and social contexts, however, I show that this trend has never been static and continues to change in relation to competing and collaborating Islamist trends as well as toward the Moroccan government.

  • Al-Anani Khalil. “ The Power of the Jama‘A: The Role of Hasan Al-Banna in Constructing the Muslim Brotherhood’s Collective Identity.” Sociology of Islam 1, no. 1–2 (2013): 4163. doi: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Asem Sondos. “ Undaunted by My Death Sentence.” The Washington Post, May 22, 2015. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/undaunted-by-my-death-sentence/2015/05/22/1dd3a4a6-fe52-11e4-833c-a2de05b6b2a4_story.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bayat Asef. Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East. Stanford, ca: Stanford University Press, 2010.

  • Bayat Asef, . “ Post-Islamism at Large.” Introduction to Post-Islamism: The Changing Faces of Political Islam, edited by Bayat Asef, 3–32. New York, ny: Oxford University Press, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boum Aomar. “ Salafis and the Paradox of Political Stability in Morocco and Tunisia.” The North Africa Post. October 4, 2012. http://northafricapost.com/628-salafis-and-the-paradox-of-political-stability-in-morocco-and-tunisia.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bukhabza Muhammad. “ Overview of the Life of Abu Uwais Muhammad Bukhabza Al-Hasani.” Ahl Al-Fadila Website. Accessed June 2, 2015. http://alfadilat.com/biblio/2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chase Anthony Tirado. Human Rights, Revolution, and Reform in the Muslim World. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2012.

  • Colla Elliott. “ In Praise of Insult: Slogan Genres, Slogan Repertoires and Innovation.” Review of Middle East Studies 47, no. 1 (July 01, 2013): 37–48. Accessed May 28, 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/41970036?ref=no-x-route:55cdad5e89be5a35e1a3b5e0ad931963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Egypt: Halt Executions of Six Men Convicted in Military Court After Unfair Trial.” Human Rights Watch. April 4, 2015. http://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/04/egypt-halt-executions-six-men.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eickelman Dale F. “ Muslim Politics: The Prospects for Democracy in North Africa and the Middle East.” In Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa, edited by John P. Entelis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Esposito John L. “ Trailblazers of the Islamic Resurgence.” In The Contemporary Islamic Revival: A Critical Survey and Bibliography, by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, John Obert Voll, and John L. Esposito, 37–54. Vol. 20. Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lacroix Stéphane. Awakening Islam: The Politics of Religious Dissent in Contemporary Saudi Arabia. Translated by George Holoch. Cambridge, ma: Harvard University Press, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lucas Russell E.Monarchical Authoritarianism: Survival and Political Liberalization in a Middle Eastern Regime Type.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 36, no. 1 (February 01, 2004): 10319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lynch Marc. “ The Arab Thermidor.” Editorial. Washington Post, February 27, 2015. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2015/02/27/the-arab-thermidor/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pargeter Alison. “ The Islamist Movement in Morocco.” Terrorism Monitor 3, no. 10 (May 23, 2005). http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=483&no_cache=1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rachidi Ilhem. “ Morocco Admits to Police Abuse, Tarnishing Model Response to Arab Spring.” The Christian Science Monitor, October 8, 2012. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2012/1008/Morocco-admits-to-police-abuse-tarnishing-model-response-to-Arab-Spring.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sadiqi Fatima. “ Morocco’s Emerging Democracy: The 2015 Local and Regional Elections.” Wilson Center (Middle East Program, Visions No. 83). October 28, 2015. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/moroccos-emerging-democracy-the-2015-local-and-regional-elections.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shahin Emad. “ I’m One of Hundreds Sentenced to Death in Egypt. The US Is ‘concerned’. That’s Not Enough.” The Conversation, June 1, 2015. https://theconversation.com/im-one-of-hundreds-sentenced-to-death-in-egypt-the-us-is-concerned-thats-not-enough-42561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shinkman Paul D.Moroccan Government Delves Into Citizens’ Religious Lives to Purge Extremism.” u.s. News & World Report. April 16, 2015. http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/04/16/moroccan-government-delves-into-citizens-religious-lives-to-purge-extremism.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tilly Charles. Contentious Performances. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

  • The Tortured of the Central Prison in Kenitra. “ In This Manner They Tortured Us and Violated Our Rights: Handwritten Testimonies, Forms and Statistics.” Website for the Support of Oppressed Prisoners in Moroccan Prisons. June 20, 2009. http://www.hassankettani.info/letters.php.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Voll John O.Neo-Sufism: Reconsidered Again.” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines 42, no. 2/3, Engaging with a Legacy: Nehemia Levtzion (1935–2003) (January 01, 2008): 314–30. Accessed June 02, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webb Edward. “ The ‘Church’ of Bourguiba: Nationalizing Islam in Tunisia.” Sociology of Islam 1, no. 1–2 (2013): 1740. doi: .

  • Wegner Eva. Islamist Opposition in Authoritarian Regimes: The Party of Justice and Development in Morocco. Syracuse, ny: Syracuse University Press, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White Jenny B.Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

  • Zeghal Malika. Islamism in Morocco: Religion, Authoritarianism, and Electoral Politics. Translated by George Holoch. Princeton, nj: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zemni Sami, . “ Moroccan Post-Islamism: Emerging Trend or Chimera?” In Post-Islamism: The Changing Faces of Political Islam, edited by Bayat Asef, 13456. New York, ny: Oxford University Press, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Sondos Asem, “Undaunted by My Death Sentence,” The Washington Post, May 22, 2015, http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/undaunted-by-my-death-sentence/2015/05/22/1dd3a4a6-fe52-11e4-833c-a2de05b6b2a4_story.html.; Emad Shahin, “I’m One of Hundreds Sentenced to Death in Egypt. The us is ‘concerned’. That’s Not Enough,” The Conversation, June 1, 2015, https://theconversation.com/im-one-of-hundreds-sentenced-to-death-in-egypt-the-us-is-concerned-thats-not-enough-42561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

     See Umar Ryad, Islamic Reformism and Christianity: A Critical Reading of the Works of Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā and His Associates (1898–1935)(Leiden: Brill, 2009).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

     See John O. Voll, “Neo-Sufism: Reconsidered Again,” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines 42, no. 2/3, Engaging with a Legacy: Nehemia Levtzion (1935–2003) (January 01, 2008).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

     See Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11(New York: Knopf, 2006).

  • 15

    Jenny B. White, Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013), 49.

  • 16

    Dale F. Eickelman, “Muslim Politics: The Prospects for Democracy in North Africa and the Middle East,” in Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa, ed. John P. Entelis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), 29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Clement M. Henry, “Crises of Money and Power: Transitions to Democracy?,” in Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa, ed. John P. Entelis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), 198–9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Al-Tayyib, 2012b.

  • 31

    Al-Tayyib, 2012a.

  • 34

    Mundhir Budhiafi, “Tunisian Interior Ministry Expels Moroccan Salafi Jihadists,” Al-Arabiyya, May 15, 2012, http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/05/15/214305.html. (Arabic).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Mohamed Saadouni, “Morocco Pursues Salafist Reconciliation,” (Magharebia.com), May 18, 2012, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/reportage/2012/05/18/reportage-01.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Russell E. Lucas, “Monarchical Authoritarianism: Survival and Political Liberalization in a Middle Eastern Regime Type,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 36, no. 1 (February 01, 2004).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Alison Pargeter, “The Islamist Movement in Morocco,” Terrorism Monitor 3, no. 10 (May 23, 2005), http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=483&no_cache=1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

     See Asef Bayat, Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East (Stanford, ca: Stanford University Press, 2010).

  • 43

     See Charles Tilly, Contentious Performances (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

  • 46

    Ilhem Rachidi, “Morocco Admits to Police Abuse, Tarnishing Model Response to Arab Spring,” The Christian Science Monitor, October 8, 2012, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2012/1008/Morocco-admits-to-police-abuse-tarnishing-model-response-to-Arab-Spring.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51

     See Anthony Tirado. Chase, Human Rights, Revolution, and Reform in the Muslim World (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2012); Also John L. Esposito, “Trailblazers of the Islamic Resurgence,” in The Contemporary Islamic Revival: A Critical Survey and Bibliography, by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, John Obert Voll, and John L. Esposito, vol. 20, Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), 39.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 152 72 2
Full Text Views 139 0 0
PDF Downloads 24 4 0