The Prospects for Turkish – Chinese Bilateral and Multilateral Security Cooperation

in Sociology of Islam
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Using a paradigm of five interrelated variables the paper examines the opportunities and challenges for security cooperation between Turkey, a predominantly Muslim society, and China, a society still dominated by the Communist Party. The five variables consist of military capabilities, economic capabilities, essential natural resources, ethnic and religious tolerance, and political legitimacy. The paradigm demonstrates that their interests help to promote security cooperation between Turkey and China, but also lead to strains in their relations along every variable. Both states are concerned about separatist groups but the Turkish public and some politicians are supportive of the Uighurs. Trade is growing but is unbalanced. They compete for energy sources but cooperate on development of alternative energy. Each of the variables in turn affects the political legitimacy of both regimes. Despite these instances of divergence in their national interests, Turkey and China can make policy choices that would strengthen their security relationship.

The Prospects for Turkish – Chinese Bilateral and Multilateral Security Cooperation

in Sociology of Islam

Sections

References

Today’s Zaman (2012) 1.6 bln currency swap deal to facilitate Turkish-Chinese trade. 26 April.http://www.todayszaman.com/business_16-bln-currency-swap-deal-to-facilitate-turkish-chinese-trade_278659.html [Accessed 27 June 2015].

AltunışıkMeliha and TürÖzlem (2005) Challenges of Continuity and ChangeLondon: Routledge.

Anadolu Agency (2014) Turkey to build nuclear reactor with Chinaus company.

November. http://www.aa.com.tr/en/news/425984--turkey-to-build-nuclear-reactor-with-china-us-company [Accessed 1 March 2015].

BakewellSally (2012) Sinovell Agrees to Supply $1Billion Ağaoğlu Wind Farm in Turkey Bloomberg News April 12. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-04-11/sinovel-agrees-to-supply-1-billion-agaoglu-wind-farm-in-turkey [Accessed 1 March 2015].

BekdilBurak (2014) Turkey distancing itself from missile deal with China. Hürriyet Daily News11 March. http://www.hürriyetdailynews.com/turkey-distancing-from-missile-deal-with-china.aspx?pageID=238&nID=63415&NewsCatID=483[Accessed 30 June 2015].

ÇektirBerk (2013) Agreements between China and Turkey. Today’s Zaman 7 May.http://www.todayszaman.com/anasayfa/columnist/berk-cektir/agreements-between-china-and-turkey_314772.html [Accessed 9 May 2013].

Bhattacharji. Preeti. (2012) Uighurs and China’s Xinjiang Region Council on Foreign Relations 29 May. http://www.cfr.org/china/uighurs-chinas-xinjiang-region/p16870 [Accessed 2 March 2015].

BozkurtAbdullah (2013) Chemical weapons-free Syria good for Turkey. Today’s Zaman13 September. http://www.todayszaman.com/columnist/abdullah-bozkurt/chemical-weapons-free-syria-good-for-turkey_326315.html[Accessed 4 March 2015].

CoşkunOrhan (2014) TurkeyChina in talks on $10-$12 billion energy investment: minister. Reuters5 May. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/05/05/us-turkey-china-energy-idusbreA4404J20140505[Accessed 1 March 2015].

Chunshan Mu (2014) What is cica (And Why Does China Care About It)?The Diplomat17 May. http://thediplomat.com/2014/05/what-is-cica-and-why-does-china-care-about-it[Accessed 28 February 2015].

Christie-MillerAlexander (2015) DavutoğluErdoğan’s vision man saw Turkey as an Islamic world leader. Christian Science Monitor2 March. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2015/0302/Davutoğlu-Erdoğan-s-vision-man-saw-Turkey-as-an-Islamic-world-leader[Accessed 3 March 2015].

Davutoğlu Ahmet (2012) Principles of Turkish Foreign Policy and Regional Political Structuring. Vision Papers 3 Center for Strategic ResearchMinistry of Foreign Affairs.http://sam.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/vision_paper_TFP2.pdf [Accessed 28 June 2015].

DrennanJustine (2015) Is China Making Its Own Terrorism Problem Worse. Foreign Policy9 February. http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/09/is-china-making-its-own-terrorism-problem-worse-uighurs-islamic-state[Accessed 15 February 2015].

eiaU.S. Energy Information Administration (2015a) China’s crude oil imports by source 2014. China International energy and data analysis 11. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/countries_long/China/china.pdf[Accessed 29 June 2015].

eiaU.S. Energy Information Administration (2015b) Turkey’s crude oil supply mix 2012. Turkey International energy and data analysis 4. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/countries_long/Turkey/turkey.pdf[Accessed 29 June 2015].

eiaU.S. Energy Information Administration (2015c) China’s oil production and consumption 1993–2016. China International energy and data analysis 8. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/countries_long/China/china.pdf[Accessed 29 June 2015].

eiaU.S. Energy Information Administration (2015d) Turkey petroleum and other liquids production and consumption 2001–2013. Turkey International energy and data analysis 2. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/countries_long/Turkey/turkey.pdf[Accessed 29 June 2015].

ErgunsüUmut (2015) China’s new Silk Road initiative attracts Turkey’s attention Hürriyet Daily News 19 February. http://www.hürriyetdailynews.com/chinas-new-silk-road-initiative-attracts-turkeys-attention.aspx?pageID=238&nID=78523&NewsCatID=396 [Accessed 22 February 2015].

ForsytheMichael. (2015) Deadly Attacks in Xinjiang Go Unreported in China. New York Times 26 February. http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/02/26/deadly-attacks-in-xinjiang-go-unreported-in-china/[Accessed 27 February 2015].

GuitonBarney (2014) isis Sees Turkey as Its Ally: Former Islamic State Member Reveals Turkish Army Cooperation. Newsweek7 November. http://www.newsweek.com/isis-and-turkey-cooperate-destroy-kurds-former-isis-member-reveals-turkish-282920[Accessed 25 January 2015].

GürcanMetin. (2015) Oppressed by China Uighurs drawn to Salafist ideas. Al-Monitor January 19. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/01/turkey-china-uyghurs-to-salafist-oppressive.html[Accessed 1 March 2015].

VitriniHaber (2009) Güneydoğu’ya 10 Milyar Dolarlık İş Ve Aş Açılımı. (10 Billion Dollar Job and Food Opening in the Southeast.) 19 August. http://www.habervitrini.com/ekonomi/guneydoguya-10-milyar-dolarlik-is-ve-as-acilimi---416378/[Accessed 30 June 2015].

HacaoğluSelcan (2014) Turkey’s Biggest Dam Project Victim of Faltering Peace. Bloomberg Business12 November. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-11-12/turkey-s-biggest-dam-project-victim-of-faltering-peace[Accessed 1 March 2015].

Hürriyet Daily News (2013) Turkey aims to increase exports to cope with trade gap. 13 September. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-aims-to-increase-exports-to-china-to-cope-with-trade-gap.aspx?pageID=238&nid=54360[Accessed 28 February 2015].

Hürriyet Daily News (2015a) Turkish banks have eyes on Chinese banking market: Minister. 26 May. http://www.hürriyetdailynews.com/turkish-banks-have-eyes-on-chinese-banking-market-minister-----.aspx?pageID=238&nID=82981&NewsCatID=345 [Accessed 17 June 2015].

Hürriyet Daiy News (2015b) Turkish President mhp leader in row over the support to Uighur Turks. 28 June. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-president-mhp-leader-in-row-over-support-to-uighur-turks.aspx?PageID=238&NID=84652&NewsCatID=338 [Accessed 29 June 2015].

İdizSemih (2013) Turkey Reconsiders Support for Jabhat al-Nusra Al-Monitor 13 August http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/tr/originals/2013/08/turkey-considers-support-for-al-nusra.html# [Accessed 25 January 2015].

Invest.gov.tr ( 2014) Chinese Talesun investing in Turkey’s solar energy potential. 2 June. http://www.invest.gov.tr/en-us/infocenter/news/Pages/060214-talesun-solar-investing-in-turkey.aspx [Accessed 1 March 2015].

Jianfei Liu (2014) An Evaluation of China’s Overall National Security Environment. China Institute of International Studies 14 November. http://www.ciis.org.cn/english/2014-11/14/content_7369467.htm [Accessed 28 February 2015].

GarethJenkins (2013) Revolution and Counter-Revolution: Kemalismthe akp and Turkey at 90. Turkey Analyst 6 (20)6 November. http://www.turkeyanalyst.org/publications/turkey-analyst-articles/item/69-revolution-and-counter-revolution-kemalism-the-akp-and-turkey-at-90.html[Accessed 3 March 2015].

KayaKaren (2013) Turkey and China: Unlikely Strategic Allies. Foreign Military Studies Office. Fort Leavenworth: ks 66027.

KırdemirBarış (2013) Turkey China and the Future of nato Defense in the Region Second Line Defense 9 November. http://www.sldinfo.com/turkey-china-and-the-future-of-nato-defense-in-the-region/ [Accessed 28 February 2015].

KumarAtul (2013) Sino-Turkish Strategic Partnership: Prudent Hedging or Irreversible Shift. China Report 49 (1) 119141.

KuangyiYao (2013) The Upheaval in the Middle East and China’s Middle East Policy. Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies 6 (3) 127.

LatypovEldar (2014) Caspian Sea Littoral States’ Perspectives on the Southern Gas Corridoreu Cooperation and Chinese Dominance. Natural Gas Europe25 September. http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/azerbaijan-turkmenistan-kazakhstan-southern-corridor-eu-cooperation-china[Accessed 1 March 2015].

Lei Zhao (2013) Turkish tunnel gives China new route to Europe. China Daily 1 November. http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2013-11/01/content_17075464.htm [Accessed March 1 2013].

Lin Christina (2014) A New Eurasian Embrace: Turkey Pivots East While China Marches West. Transatlantic Academy 2013-2014 Paper Series 3.

LinChristina (2015) isis Caliphate Meets China’s Silk Road Economic Belt” meria 22 February. http://www.rubincenter.org/2015/02/isis-caliphate-meets-chinas-silk-road-economic-belt [Accessed 26 February 2015].

LipingXia (2009) How China thinks about national security. In Huisken Ron (ed.) Rising China: Power and Reassurance pp. 103119. Canberra: ANU E Press.

MacFaquharNeil and ErlangerSteven (2015) nato-Russia Tensions Rise After Turkey Downs Jet. New York Times24 Novemberhttp://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/25/world/europe/turkey-syria-russia-military-plane.html[Accessed 25 November 2015].

MakinenJulie and JohnsonGlenn. 2015 Turkey embraces Muslim Uighurs who made perilous escape from China. Los Angeles Times3 February. http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-uighurs-turkey-20150203-story.html#page=1[Accessed 2 March 2015].

Martin Lenore G. (1999) Towards an Integrated Approach to National Security in the Middle East. In MartinLenore G. (Ed.) New Frontiers in Middle East Security pp. 322. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Middle East Eye (2014) Thousands protest in Turkey to show solidarity with Kobane Kurds. 1 November. http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/thousands-protest-turkey-show solidarity-kobane-kurds-129318560 [Accessed 3 March 2015].

BalanceMilitary (2015) The Middle East and North Africa Chapter 7 pp. 303–362 and Europe Chapter 4 pp 57–158 International Institute for Strategic Studies 115 (1).

NathanAndrew J. and ScobellAndrew (2014) China’s Search for SecurityNew York: Columbia University Press.

NantoDick K. (2011) Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S.

Policy. Congressional Research Service January 4.

nato (2015) Statement by nato Defence Ministers. 25 June. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_121133.htm?selectedLocale=en [Accessed June 26 2015].

Parkinson Joe Albayrak Ayala et al. (2014) A Year After Gezi Park ProtestsTurkey’s Erdoğan Still Has Strong Grip on Power. The Wall Street Journal30 May. http://www.wsj.com/articles/turkeys-erdoğan-strong-a-year-after-gezi-park-protests-1401473535[Accessed 3 March 2015].

RochM. (2014) “Industrial & Commercial Bank of China Buys Turkey’s Tekstilbank. International Business Times April 29. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/industrial-commercial-bank-china-buys-turkeys-tekstilbank-1446599 [Accessed March 1 2015].

ShichorYitzhak (2014) Turkey and China in the Post-Cold War World: Great Expectations. In Gilley Bruce and O’Neill Andrew (eds.) Middle Powers and the Rise of China pp. 192212. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

TaoZan (2013) An Alternative Partner to the West?Turkey’s Growing Relations with China. Middle East Institute25 October.

TaoZhang (2014) Peace Mission - 2014 joint anti-terrorism exercise to highlight five features. China Military Online19 August. http://eng.chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/china-military-news/2014-08/19/content_6101823.htm[Accessed 28 February 2015].

Tiezzi Shannon (2015) China’s National Security Strategy. The Diplomat January 24. http://thediplomat.com/2015/01/chinas-national-security-strategy/ [Accessed February 28 2015].

Turkey aims to increase exports to cope with trade gap. (2013) Hürriyet Daily News 13 September. http://www.hürriyetdailynews.com/turkey-aims-to-increase-exports-to-china-to-cope-with-trade-gap.aspx?pageID=238&nid=54360 [Accessed 28 February 2015].

Turkish National Assembly Human Rights Commission Report on Investigation of Violation of the Right to Live in the Context of Terrorism Report (2013) 24th Period 3rd Legislative Year (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi İnsan Haklarını İnceleme Komisyonu Terör ve Şiddet Olayları Kapsamında Yaşam Hakkı İhlallerini İnceleme Raporu 24. Dönem 3. Yasama Yılı 2013)

TurkStat Turkish Statistical Institute. (2015) http://www.turkstat.gov.tr [Accessed March 1 2015].

ÜlkerKerem (2014) China enters the us market with ‘Made in Turkey.’ Daily Sabah21 Decemberhttp://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2014/12/22/china-enters-the-us-market-with-made-in-turkey[Accessed 1 March 2015].

un Comtrade Database (2014) http://comtrade.un.org accessed March 1 2015.

VietorRichard H. K. and ThompsonEmily (2005) Turkey: Security Stability in a Rough Neighborhood. Harvard Business School Case Collection November 2005.

WarrickJoby (2009) cia Adds Economy to Threat Updates. Washington Post February 262009. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/02/25/ar2009022503389.html[Accessed 28 February 2015].

WeitzRichard. (2014) The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (sco): Rebirth and Regeneration? The International Relations and Security Network 10 October. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Articles/Detail/?id=184270[Accessed 28 February 2015].

WinrowGareth (2013) The Southern Gas Corridor and Turkey’s Role as an Energy Transit State and Energy HubInsight Turkey 15 (1) 145163.

Zeyrek Deniz (2015) Turkey concerned by return of Turkish isil fighters. Hürriyet Daily News 15 January. http://www.hürriyetdailynews.com/turkey-concerned-by-return-of-turkish-isil-fighters-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=76945&NewsCatID=338 [Accessed 3 March 2015].

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 12 12 6
Full Text Views 6 6 6
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0