The Gulf Looks East

Sino-Arab Relations in an Age of Instability

in Sociology of Islam
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


The United States must now confront a new and emerging dynamic as most Gulf Cooperation Council countries have begun to increasingly diversify their political, economic, and security partnerships to include China. For Gulf Arab monarchies, the choice of security or economic partner is made more complicated by increased domestic and regional instability stemming in part from Iraq, Syria, and Iran. Understanding the shifting economic and political alliances is vitally important for understanding the future of regional security and politics. This article examines Gulf Arab national security—particularly through the case of Saudi Arabia—and how the Gulf monarchies have increasingly bolstered their economic and political partnerships with China in recent years due in part to widespread anti-U.S. sentiment and the threat of domestic upheaval. It looks specifically at how Gulf national security can be shaped by internal versus external threats and what this means for the future of regional security.

The Gulf Looks East

Sino-Arab Relations in an Age of Instability

in Sociology of Islam



AhmadSaed (2013). “The ever-changing oil map.”Al-Monitor October 16. Available at <>.

SarhanAl Saud (2014). “From Qusair to Yabrud: Shiite Foreign Fighters in Syria.” Al-Monitor March 6. Available at <>.

TamimiAl Naser (2014). “The ties that bind Saudi-Chinese relations.” Al-Arabiya March 14. Available at <>.

KhanAli Gulam (2014). “Oman-China Bilateral Trade Volumes at $23bn in 2013.” Muscat Daily March 4. Available at <>.

AzarEdward and MoonChung-In eds. (1988). National Security in the Third World. London: Elgar Publishing.

Bingbing Wu (2011). “Strategy and Politics in the Gulf as Seen from China.” In China and the Persian Gulf: Implications for the United States. Washington dc: Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars. Available at <>.

BuzanBarry and HansenLene (2009). The Evolution of International Security Studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.

CarrE.H. (1939). The Twenty Years’ Crisis 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations.London: Macmillan.

CordesmanAnthony H. and Al-RodhanKhalid R. (2006). The Gulf Military Forces in an Era of Asymmetric War: Saudi Arabia. WashingtonD.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Engelhardt Tom (2013). "The Pentagon as a global nra For Washington there is no arms control abroad.” Al Jazeera January 20 2013. Available at <>.

Gause IIIF. Gregory (1994). Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.

Gause IIIF. Gregory (2009). “ Official Wahhabism and the Sanctioning of Saudi-us Relations.” In AyoobMohammed and KosebalabanHasan eds. Religion and Politics in Saudi Arabia: Wahhabism and the State pp. 135148. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner.

GreshGeoffrey F. (2011). “ China’s Emerging Twin-Pillar Policy in the Gulf.” Foreign PolicyNovember 7.

GreshGeoffrey F. (2015). Gulf Security and the U.S. Military: Regime Survival and the Politics of Basing.Stanford: Stanford University Press.

GrimmettRichard and KerrPaul (2012). “Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations 2004–2011.” Congressional Research Service August 24.

HaftendornHelga (1991). “The Security Puzzle: Theory-Building and Discipline-Building in International Security.” International Studies Quarterly 35: 317.

HongYelin (2015). “The aiib Is Seen Very Differently in the us, Europe, and China.”The Diplomat May 8 2015. Available at <>.

IrishJohn (2011). “ unesco grants Palestinians full membership.” Reuters October 31.

JohnsonKeith (2015). “China Tops U.S. as Biggest Oil Importer.”Foreign Policy May 11. Available at: <>.

KeckZachary (2014). “China to Sell Saudi Arabia Drones.”The Diplomat May 8. Available at <>.

KeohaneRobert (1986). Neorealism and Its Critics.New York: Columbia University Press.

KurlantzickJoshua (2007). Charm Offensive: How China’s Soft Power Is Transforming the World.New Haven: Yale University Press.

LiangxiangJin (2005). “ Energy first (China and the Middle East).” Middle East Quarterly 12: 3-11.

LinJeffrey and SingerP.W. (2014). “Chinese Drones Soon Flying Over Saudi Arabia.”Popular Science April 29. Available at <>.

MartinLenore (2001). New Frontiers in Middle East Security.New York: Palgrave.

McAuleyAnthony (2015). “ Oil’s Vulnerable Trade Route.” The National March 31. Available at LexisNexis.

MorgenthauHans J. (1985). Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: Alfred Knopf.

NelsonMatthew et al (2006). “ Fueling the Dragon’s Flame: How China’s Energy Demands Affect its Relationships in the Middle East.” U.S.-China Economic and Security ReviewCommission.

Payne Ed (2015). “Pentagon: U.S. to begin to train and equip moderate Syria rebels.” January 16. Available at <>.

“Remarks by Secretary Hagel at the Manama Dialogue from Manama” (2013). Bahrain December 7. Available at <>.

RoganEugene (2009). The Arabs: A History. New York: Basic Books.

Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia News Conference (2003). Topics: Counterterrorism Activities and Economic and Political Reform. Briefer: Adel al-Jubeir Foreign Policy Adviser to Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz. May 16. Available at LexisNexis.

RozmanGilbert ed. (2012). China’s Foreign Policy: Who makes it and how is it made?Seoul: The Asan Institute for Policy Studies.

“Saudi Ambassador a ‘Chemistry with China” (2011). China Daily September 26. Available at <>.

SierenFrank (2015). “Sieren’s China: Sino-Saudi relations to remain stable.”Deutsche Welle February 13. Available at <>.

StokesBruce (2014). “Which countries don’t like America and which do,” Pew Research Center July 15. Available at <>.

TerrillAndrew (2006). Regional Fears of Western Primacy and the Future of U.S. Middle Eastern Basing Policy. WashingtonD.C.: Strategic Studies Institute.

TrenwithCourtney (2013). “ China-uae trade: Enter the dragon.” Arabian BusinessMarch 10.

UllmanRichard H. (1983). “ Redefining Security.” International Security 8: 129-153.

U.S.-Saudi Arabia Trade Facts” (2014). Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Available at: <>.

VineDavid (2014). “The Bases of War in the Middle East.”Huffington Post November 13. Available at <>.

WakefieldBryce and LevensteinSusan L. eds. (2011). China and the Persian Gulf: Implications for the United States.WashingtonDC: Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars.

WaltStephen (1991). The Origins of Alliances.Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

WaltzKenneth (1979). Theory of International Politics (ReadingU.K.: Addison-Wesley.

“Wen Jiabao Meets with Speaker of the Consultative Council of Saudi Arabia Abdullah” (2011).Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region June 13. Available at <>.

WolfersArnold (1962). Discord and Collaboration.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press1962.

WoodwardBob (1991). The Commanders. New York: Pocket Star Books1991.


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 57 57 26
Full Text Views 93 93 68
PDF Downloads 10 10 8
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0