The main claim of the present article is that a Shia theological seminary, contrary to the common depiction presented, is a multivocal institution. The tradition of multivocality does not appertain only to ʿulamāʾ. Young clergy and seminaries also have very different ideas concerning religious thought. Evidence of this can be found in the present article in the form of examples of the dramatic discrepancy between ʿulamāʾ in essential theological beliefs, political theology, juridical methodology, issuing fatwas, and historical events relating to Shia identity. Moreover, the multivocality of young seminary students was empirically tested in Howzah ʿlmiyyah of Qom in Iran. The findings of this survey demonstrate the existence of four distinct schools of religious thought in the Shia seminary. At the end of the article, the educational, political and technological factors which have led to the formation of different intellectual trends within the contemporary Shia clergy institution are discussed.
BrunnerRainer. (2001). “A Shiite cleric’s criticism of Shiism: Mūsā al-MūsāwῙ.” in The Twelver Shia in Modern Times: Religious Culture and Political History edited by BrunnerR. and EndeW.178–187. Leiden: Brill.
FadlullahMuhammad Hossain. (2012). Al-Saiyyd Fadlullah mu Muqniʿ fi Masʾla Kasr ḍlʾ al-Zahrā wa Yatasʾal maza Kunt Satafʿal lou Aḥad Biyaʿtadi alā Zoujatik? October 14. [Online]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEInTDlvz8I [Accessed 26 May 2016].
KhalajiMehdi. (2012). “What Ayatollahs Think about Politics.” in Iranian Shia Clergy and Democratic Transition: Insiders’ Perspectives edited by Nekuee.S. Knowledge Programme Civil Society in West Asia 6–9. Special Bulletin 1. December 2012.
MakarimShirazi Naser. (2011). Moʿzalāt-e Akhlāqi va Ejtemāʿi ra Mitavān ba Barnāmeh-ha-ye Sedā va Simā Hall Kard. The official Website of Ayatollah Makarim Shirazi June 26 2011. (05 Tir 1390) http://makarem.ir/news/?typeinfo=4&lid=0&mid=60907&catid=0&start=1&PageIndex=0[Accessed 08 May 2016].
MontazeriHossain Ali. (2007). Fatwa Ayatollah Montazeri dar Murid Darāwish Silsilih Gunabadi: Tassafuf va Sherkat dar Majāles-e ānān. The official Website of Darāwish Nimatullahi Gunabadi. https://www.majzooban.org/fa/index.php/2016-01-20-18-31-19/430-5e0e-%D9%81%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%A7-%D8%A2%DB%8C%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D9%85%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%B8%D8%B1%DB%8C-%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%AF-%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%88%DB%8C%D8%B4-%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%87-%DA%AF%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AF%DB%8C [Accessed 04 April 2017].
Sistanial-Husayni Ali. (2007). Lā Khilāfāt Haqīqiyya Bayn al-Shia wa al-Sunna. The official Website of Ayatollah Sistani November 28 2007. http://www.sistani.org/arabic/in-news/1038/[Accessed 08 May 2016].
SobhaniJaʿfar. (1375/1996). “Al-Tashaiyyu fī Halab Abr al-Qurūn wa Tarjuma al-muʾallif.” in Ghuniyyat al-Nuzuʿ ilā ʿIlmay al-Uṣūl wa al-FurūʿHamzah Ibn Ali IbnZuhra Vol. 1. 3–31. QomMuassisah al-Imam al-Sadīq.