The paper highlights the socio-economic aspects of the concept of hijra or migration in the Islamic tradition. The paper argues that the conception of migration in the Islamic tradition has been shaped by not only religious and ethical values, but also social and economic motivations and consequences ever since the first migrations to Abyssinia and Medina. The paper addresses the notion and practice of hijra in Islamic history by highlighting its ethical and religious value as well as its nature and evolution into a socio-economic activity motivated by different forms of oppression, including social and political oppression as well as economic deprivation. The study draws on the history of Islam and the Islamic society, the sources of Islamic law and doctrines, and the thought of scholars in relation to the changes in approaches to migration, and the conceptualization of hijra as an activity motivated by oppression and economic hardship.
Abou El FadlKhaled (1994). Islamic law and Muslim minorities: the juristic discourse on Muslim minorities from the second/eighth to the eleventh/seventeenth centuries. Islamic Law and Society1(2): 141–187.
AhmadAnis (2009). Muhājirūn. In EspositoJohn (ed.) The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Accessed June 1 2015. Availablehttp://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e1208.
MartinRobert C. (2005). From dhimmis to minorities: shifting constructions of the non-Muslim other from early to modern Islam. In ShatzmillerMaya (ed.) Nationalism and Minority Identities in Islamic Societies pp. 3–21. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
MasudMuhammad Khalid (1990). The obligation to migrate: the doctrine of hijra in Islamic law. In EickelmanDale F. & PiscatoriJames P. (eds.) Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage Migration and the Religious Imagination pp. 29–49. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Molina LópezEmilio (1979). Dos importantes privilegios a los emigrados Andalusíes en el Norte de África en el siglo xiii, contenidos en el Kitāb Zawāhir al-Fikar de Muhammad b. al-Murābit [Two Important Privileges Granted to Andalusian Immigrants from North Africa in the 8th Century]. Cuadernos de Historia del Islam9: 5–28.
NielsenJørgen S (2009). Migration. In EspositoJohn (ed.) The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Accessed June 25 2015. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e1063.
SamuelsWarren J.BiddleJeff E. & DavisJohn B. eds. (2003). Contributions of Medieval Muslim Scholars to the History of Economics and their Impact: A Refutation of the Schumpeterian Great Gap. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
SaritoprakZeki. (2011). The Qur’anic perspective on immigrants: Prophet Muhammad’s migration and its implications in our modern society.10(1). Accessed June 10 2015. Availablehttps://jsr.shanti.virginia.edu/back-issues/vol-10-no-1-august-2011-people-and-places/the-quranic-perspective-on-immigrants/.