Few studies analyze minorities among the African American Muslims in the United States. The absence of ethnographic research shows that the current scholarship neglects the minority status of African American Twelver Shias. Based on fieldwork observations from March to December 2015 and several informal interviews, I try to understand how the African American Shia community of New York was formed and how it negotiated its identity when encountered with African American non-Shia Muslims and with Twelver Muslims of other ethnic backgrounds. I try to revisit the diasporic/immigrant religious culture that some Twelver Shias like to practice. This culture seems to have no resonance for the African American Twelver Muslims. Because some African American Twelvers joined Shia Islam after the end of the classic period of the Nation of Islam, it is argued that highlighting cultural practices by the immigrant community might force some African American Twelvers back to their practices of origin.
About Islam. (2015). Retrieved fromhttp://www.cair.com/publications/about-islam.html.
AnsariZ.I. (2004). Islam among African Americans: An overview. In BukhariZ.H.NyangS.S.AhmadM. & EspositoJ.L. (Eds.) Muslims’ place in the American public square: Hope fears and aspirations. Walnut Creek ca: AltaMira Press.
BagbyI. (2012). The American Mosque 2011: Basic characteristics of the American Mosque attitudes of Mosque Leaders (1). Retrieved fromhttps://www.cair.com/images/pdf/The-American-Mosque-2011-part-1.pdf.
BagbyI.PerlP.M. & FroehleB.T. (2001). The Mosque in America a national portrait: A report from the Mosque Study Project. Washington dc. Retrieved fromhttps://www.cair.com/images/pdf/The-American-mosque-2001.pdf.
EspositoJ.L.FaschingD.J. & LewisT. (2007). Islam and postmodern trends in a postcolonial world. In EspositoJ.L.FaschingD.J. & LewisT. (Eds.) Religion & globalization: World religions in historical perspective. New York ny: Oxford University Press.
HaddadY.Y. (1997). Make room for the Muslims? In WalterJ.ConserH. & TwissS.B. (Eds.) Religious diversity and American religious history: Studies in traditions and cultures. Athens ga: University of Georgia Press.
M’rouehY.A.H. (1997a). Shi’a organizations and institutions in North America. In HejaziS.M.R.HashimA.S. & A. Ahl Ul Bayt World (Eds.) Abstract of proceedings convention of 1996 (pp. 57–62). Potomac md: Ahlul-Bayt Assembly of America.
M’rouehY.A.H. (1997b). Shi’a Population in North America. In HejaziS.M.R.HashimA.S. & A. Ahl Ul Bayt World (Eds.) Abstract of proceedings convention of 1996 (pp. 41–56). Potomac md: Ahlul-Bayt Assembly of America.
McCloudA.B. (2004). Islam in America: The mosaic. In HaddadY.Y.SmithJ.I. & EspositoJ.L. (Eds.) Religion and immigration: Christian Jewish and Muslim experiences in the United States. Walnut Creek ca: AltaMira Press.
OttermanS. (2014 April 17). Muslims in New York City unite on push to add holidays to school calendar. The New York Times. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/18/nyregion/muslims-in-new-york-city-unite-on-push-to-add-holidays-to-school-calendar.html?_r=0.
Ross-SheriffF. & HusainA. (2004). South Asian Muslim children and families. In FongR. (Ed.) Culturally competent practice with immigrant and refugee children and families. New York ny: The Guildford Press.
SachedinaA.A. (1994). A minority within a minority: The case of the Shi’a in North America. In HaddadY.Y. & SmithJ.I. (Eds.) Muslim communities in North America (pp. 3–14). Albany ny: State University of New York Press.
TakimL. (2014). Shi‘i Islam in the African American community. In A.McCloud (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of African American Islam
. New York ny: Oxford University Press. Retrieved fromwww.oxfordhandbooks.com/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199929269.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199929269-e-002. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199929269.013.002.
WeinerM. & YuskaevT. (2006). Training teachers in American religious diversity. In PatelE. & BrodeurP. (Eds.) Building the interfaith youth movement: Beyond dialogue to action. Lanham md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.