Outside of the Law: Khomeini’s Legacy of Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in the Islamic Republic

in Sociology of Islam
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

This article explores the legacy of Khomeini’s declarations on amr bi ma‘rūf va nahī az munkar (commanding right and forbidding wrong). Focusing particularly on Khomeini’s Taḥrīr al-wasīla, in which his most detailed exploration of the duty to command and forbid is found, I argue that a number of the Islamic Republic’s institutions and political factions have been unable to legislate on this duty because its most effective role is in the social sphere. By attempting to codify commanding and forbidding in law, these institutions and factions eschew the duty’s esoteric and ambiguous qualities that make it both applicable and complete. The duty is instead most effective as a tool for self-governance and communal reform. Khomeini’s innovative vision of commanding and forbidding provides a certain degree of autonomy in social space for those who perform or sanction the duty.

Outside of the Law: Khomeini’s Legacy of Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in the Islamic Republic

in Sociology of Islam

Sections

References

  • Afary J and Anderson Kevin B . (2005). Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: Gender and the Seductions of IslamismThe University of Chicago PressChicago.

  • Ali Ahmed (1993). Al-Qur’ān. Princeton University PressPrinceton, New Jersey.

  • Anscombe G.E.M. (1963). IntentionHarvard University PressCambridge.

  • Arsalan S [bayusaan_ir] (2016). Amr bi ma‘rūf va nahī az munkar dastūr-i khudāst. Amā na mis̱l-i gasht-i irshād va rāh-i ḥalish ham app-i girshād nīst … Twitter Post 9 February. Available from: https://mobile.twitter.com/bayusaan/status/697034705695305728.

  • Constitution of Iran The. Available from: http://www.iranonline.com/iran/iran-info/government/constitution-11.html.

  • Cook Michael (2010). Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic ThoughtCambridge University PressCambridge.

  • Corbin Henry (2014). The History of Islamic Philosophy Liadain Sherrard (tr) RoutledgeOxford.

  • Foucault Michel (1988). Technologies of the Self. In Martin L.H. Gutman H. and Hutton P.H. (eds) Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel FoucaultTavistock PublicationsLondon. pp. 1649.

  • Foucault Michel (1991). Question of Method. In Burchell G. Gordon C. and Miller P. (eds) Studies in Governmentality: With Two Lectures by and an Interview with Michel FoucaultThe University of Chicago PressChicago.

  • Galli Carlo (2015). Janus’s Gaze: Essays on Carl Schmitt A Sitze (ed) A Minervini (tr) Duke University PressDurham and London.

  • Khumaynī Imām (2014). ‘Mukhtaṣarī darbāra-yi kitāb-i Taḥrīr al-wasīla as̱ar-i arzishmand-i Imām Khumaynī’18 October 2014. Available from: http://www.imam-khomeini.ir/fa/n23169/.

  • Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2014). ‘Apostasy in the Islamic Republic of Iran’30 July. Available from: http://www.iranhrdc.org/english/publications/reports/1000000512-apostasy-in-the-islamic-republic-of-iran.html.

  • Center Islamic Parliament Research (1993). ‘Qānūn-i himāyat-i qażāyī az basīj’ 18 January. Available from: http://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/92119.

  • Kahn Paul (2012). Political Theology: Four New Chapters on the Concept of SovereigntyColumbia University PressNew York.

  • Online Khabar (2010). ‘Ayatullah Miṣbāḥ: shak dar vūjūb-i amr bi ma‘rūf bi irtidād mī anjāmad 4 September. Available from: http://khabaronline.ir/detail/89595/Politics/parties.

  • Khumayni Ruh Allah (1981). Islam and Revolution: Writings and Declarations of Imam Khomeini H Algar (tr) Mizan PressBerkeley.

  • Khomeini Ruhollah (2015). The Mystery of Prayer: The Ascension of the Wayfarers and the Prayer of the Gnostics Sayyid Amjad H. Shah Naqavi (tr.) Brill Leiden.

  • Khomeini Imam Ruhullah (2001). Taḥrīr al-wasīla Dr. Sayyid Ali Reza Naqavi (tr) The Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini’s WorksTehran.

  • Khumaynī Rūḥullah (1970). Taḥrīr al-wasīla vol. 1Dār al-kutub al-‘ilmiyyaQom.

  • Khumaynī Rūḥullah (N.d.). Ṣaḥīfa-yi Imām vol. 10 Mu’assasa-yi tanẓīm va nashr-i ās̱ār-i Imām Khumaynī Tehran.

  • Khumaynī Rūḥullah (N.d.). Ṣaḥīfa-yi Imām vol. 4 Mu’assasa-yi tanẓīm va nashr-i ās̱ār-i Imām Khumaynī Tehran.

  • Khumaynī Rūḥullah (2009). Kashf al-asrārKetab CorpLos Angeles.

  • Kian Azadeh (2014). Gendered Khomeini. In Adib-Moghaddam A (ed) A Critical Introduction to KhomeiniCambridge University PressCambridge pp. 170192.

  • Martin Vanessa (2000). Creating an Islamic State: Khomeini and the Making of a New IranI.B. TaurusLondon.

  • Mir-Hosseini Ziba (2012). The Politics of Divorce Laws in Iran: Ideology versus Practice. In Mehdi R Menski W and Nielsen J (eds) Interpreting Divorce Laws in IslamDJØF PublishingCopenhagen pp. 6583.

  • Moslem Mehdi (2002). Factional Politics in Post-Khomeini IranSyracuse University PressNew York.

  • Mu’assasa-yi tanẓīm va nashr-i ās̱ār-i Imām Khumaynī (2012). Amr bi ma‘rūf va nahī az munkar az dīdgāh-i Imām KhumaynīChāp va nashr-i ‘arūjTehran.

  • Pāygāh-i iṭalā‘-i risānī va khabarī-yi jamārān (2013a). ‘Taḥrīr al-wasīla kitābī būd ki bi niẓām khadmat kard’ 9 January. Available from: http://jamaran.ir/fa/NewsContent-id_24409.aspx.

  • Pāygāh-i iṭalā‘-i risānī va khabarī-yi jamārān (2013b). ‘Malāk-i shūrā-yi nigahbān barā-yi taṭbīq-i qavānīn bā sharTaḥrīr al-wasīla-yi Imām ast’ 16 January. Available from: http://jamaran.ir/fa/NewsContent-id_24503.aspx.

  • Perrot Michelle (ed) (1980). L’Impossible prison: Recherches sur le système pénitentiaire au XIXe siècleEditions du SeuilParis.

  • Rāhisabz (2014). ‘Miṣbāḥ Yazdī: Nahī az munkar bā zibān javāb nimī dahad’ 24 October. Available from: http://www.rahesabz.net/story/87137/ oct 24 2014.

  • Reinhart A. Kevin (1983). Islamic Law as Islamic Ethics. The Journal of Religious Ethics11 (2): 186203.

  • Sauer Rebecca (2014). Tafsīr between Law and Exegesis: The Case of 49:9. In Gorke A and Pink J (eds) Tafsīr and Islamic Intellectual History: Exploring the Boundaries of a GenreOxford University PressOxford pp. 223250.

  • Schirazi Asghar (1997). The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the State in the Islamic Republic John O’Kane (tr) I.B. TaurusLondon.

  • Sharī‘atī ‘Alī (1972). Shī‘a N.p.

  • Sitād-i iḥyā-yi amr bi ma‘rūf va nahī az munkar (2015). Qānūn-i ḥimāyat az amrān bi ma‘rūf va nahyān az munkar va dastūr al-‘aml ijrā-yi qānūn.

  • Vogel Frank E. (2003). The Public and Private in Saudi Arabia: Restrictions on the Powers of Committees for Ordering the Good and Forbidding the Evil. Social Research: An International Quarterly of Social Sciences70 (3): 74968.

  • Yavari Neguin (2014). Tafsīr and the Myth of Islamic Fundamentalism. In Gorke A and Pink J (eds) Tafsīr and Islamic Intellectual History: Exploring the Boundaries of a GenreOxford University PressOxford pp. 289319.

  • Yavari Neguin (forthcoming). Qur’anic Sanction and the Semiotics of Sovereignty in Contemporary Iran. In Cancian A (ed) Approaches to the Qur’an in Contemporary IranOxford University Press Oxford.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 299 299 54
Full Text Views 27 27 2
PDF Downloads 22 22 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0