Does Electoral Manipulation Vary?

Examining the Conditions for Instrumental and Informational Manipulation in Post-Soviet Elections

in The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Electoral manipulation is committed both during hotly contested elections as well as quite predictable ones. Comparative scholarship has sought to understand this variation, acknowledging that electoral manipulation can serve an informational as well as an instrumental role, but has not distinguished when, if ever, electoral manipulation is more likely to serve one role over another. This paper examines these issues, asking if and how strategies of manipulation differ depending on the conditions of the election. Using a newly developed measure of contestation and original data on elections from ten post-Soviet states, this paper quantitatively analyzes the types of strategies used depending on election-level factors. The results reveal that incumbents are likely to select some, but not all, types of manipulation depending on contestation of the election, the level of incumbent dominance, and the type of election being held. This paper concludes that while electoral manipulation can be used for instrumental and informational purposes, they are likely to be pursued in different elections, and that this depends on the conditions of the elections.

Sections

References

Ambrosio Thomas . (2014) “Beyond the transition paradigm: a research agenda for authoritarian consolidation.” Demokratizatsiya, vol. 22, no. 3: pp. 471494.

Argersinger Peter H. (1985) New perspectives on election fraud in the gilded age. Political Science Quarterly 100, (4): 669687.

Bader Max . (2014) “Democracy Promotion and Authoritarian Diffusion: The Foreign Origins of Post-Soviet Election Laws”. Europe-Asia Studies. 66(8):13501370.

Birch Sarah . (2011a) Electoral Malpractice. (Oxford, uk: Oxford University Press).

Birch Sarah . (2011b) “Post-Soviet Electoral Practices in Comparative Perspective”. Europe-Asia Studies. 63(4): 703725.

Brancoti Dawn . (2014) “Democratic Authoritarianism: Origins and Effects”. Annual Review of Political Science. 17: 31326.

Boix Carles , and Svolik Milan W. . (2013) “The Foundations of Limited Authoritarian Government: Institutions, Commitment, and Power-Sharing in Dictatorships”. The Journal of Politics. 75 (02): 300316.

Boyko Nazar and Herron Erik S. . (2015) “The effects of technical parties and partisan election management bodies on voting outcomes”. Electoral Studies 40: 2333.

Bratton Michael , and Van de Walle. Nicolas (1997) Democratic experiments in Africa: Regime transitions in comparative perspective. (New York, ny, usa; Cambridge, u.k: Cambridge University Press).

Brownlee Jason . (2007) Authoritarianism in an age of democratization. (Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press).

Brownlee Jason . (2009) Portents of pluralism: How hybrid regimes affect democratic transitions. American Journal of Political Science 53, (3): 515532.

de Mesquita Bueno , Bruce . (2003) The logic of political survival. (Cambridge, Mass: mit Press).

Bunce Valerie . (2000) “Comparative Democratization: Big and Bounded Generalizations”. Comparative Politics Studies. 33(6/7): 703734.

Bunce Valerie , and Wolchik Sharon L. . (2011) Defeating authoritarian leaders in postcommunist countries . (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Dahl Robert A. (1971) Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. (New Haven, ct: Yale University Press).

Donno Daniela . (2013) “Elections and Democratization in Authoritarian Regimes”. American Journal of Political Science . 57 (3): 703716.

Donno Daniela , and Roussias Nasos . (2012) “Does cheating pay? The effect of electoral misconduct on party systems”. Comparative Political Studies 45 (5): 575605.

Frantz E. , and Kendall-Taylor A. . (2014) “A dictator’s toolkit: Understanding how co-optation affects repression in autocracies”. Journal of Peace Research 51 (3): 33246.

Friedman Edward , and Wong Joseph . (eds.) (2008) Political transitions in dominant party systems: Learning to lose. (Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge).

Gasiorowski Mark J. (1995) “Economic Crisis and Political Regime Change: An Event History Analysis”. The American Political Science Review. 89 (4): 882.

Gandhi Jennifer . (2008) Political Institutions under Dictatorship. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gandhi Jennifer , and Lust-Okar Ellen . (2009) “Elections Under Authoritarianism”. Annual Review of Political Science. 12 (1).

Gandhi J. , and Przeworski A. . (2007) Authoritarian institutions and the survival of autocrats . COMPARATIVEPOLITICALSTUDIES40, (11): 12791301.

Gehlbach Scott and Simpser Alberto . (2015) “Electoral Manipulation as Bureaucratic Control.” American Journal of Political Science. 59(1):212224.

Gilbert Leah , and Mohseni Payam . (2011) “Beyond Authoritarianism: The Conceptualization of Hybrid Regimes”. Studies in Comparative International Development. 46 (3): 270297.

Golosov Grigorii . (2013) “Machine Politics: The Concept and Its Implications For Post-Soviet Studies”. Demokratizatsiya. 21(4): 459480.

Goode J. Paul . (2010) “Redefining Russia: Hybrid regimes, fieldwork, and Russian politics”. Perspectives on Politics 8, (4): 10551075.

Greene Kenneth F. (2007) Why dominant parties lose: Mexico’s democratization in comparative perspective. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Herron Erik S. (2009) Elections and democracy after communism? (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan).

Herron Erik S. (2011a) “Measuring Dissent in Electoral Authoritarian Societies: Lessons from Azerbaijan’s 2008 Presidential Election and 2009 Referendum”. Comparative Political Studies 44(11): 15571583.

Herron Erik S. (2011b) “How Viktor Yanukovych Won: Reassessing the Dominant Narratives of Ukraine’s 2010 Presidential ElectionEast European Politics and Societies 25(1): 4767.

Hyde Susan D. (2009) “How International Election Observers Detect and Deter Fraud” in Election Fraud: Detecting and Deterring Electoral Manipulation . Ed. Alvarez Michael , Thad Hall and Susan Hyde Brookings Institution Press.

Hyde Susan D. (2011) The pseudo-democrat’s dilemma: Why election observation became an international norm. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).

Hyde Susan D. , and Marinov Nikolay . (2012) “Which elections can be lost?” Political Analysis 20, (2): 191210.

Jarabinsky Ivan . (2015) “Appearances are deceptive: credibility of the Russian Election Commission” East European Politics 31(1): 88103.

Kelley Judith Green . (2012 ) Monitoring democracy: When international election observation works, and why it often fails. (Princeton, nj: Princeton University Press).

Kendall-Taylor Andrea . (2012) “Purchasing power: Oil, elections and regime durability in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan”. Europe-Asia Studies 64 (4): 73760.

Konitzer Andrew . (2005) Voting For Russia’s Governors. (Baltimore, md. Johns Hopkins University Press).

Kuntz Philipp , and Thompson Mark R. . (2009) “More than just the final straw: Stolen elections as revolutionary triggers”. Comparative Politics 41 (3): 25372.

Lassila Jussi . (2016) “Aleksei Naval’nyi and Populist Re-ordering of Putin’s Stability” Europe-Asia Studies 68(1): 118137.

LaPorte Jody . (2015) “Hidden in plain sight: Political opposition and hegemonic authoritarianism in Azerbaijan”. Post-Soviet Affairs 31 (4): 33966.

Lehoucq Fabrice . (2003) “Electoral fraud: Causes, types, and consequences”. Annual Review of Political Science 6: 23356.

Levitsky Steven , and Way Lucan . (2010) Competitive authoritarianism hybrid regimes after the Cold War. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Little Andrew . (2015) “Fraud and Monitoring and Non-competitive Elections”. Political Science Research and Methods. 3(1): 2141.

Little Andrew , Tucker Joshua and LaGatta Tom . (2015) “Elections, Protest, and the Alteration of Power”. The Journal of Politics. 77(4): 11421156.

Lukinova Evgeniya , Myagkov Mikhail and Ordeshook Peter C. . (2011) “Metastasized Fraud in Russia’s 2008 Presidential Election”. Europe-Asia Studies 63(4): 603621.

Lust-Okar Ellen . (2006) “Elections under authoritarianism: Preliminary lessons from Jordan”. Democratization. 13 (3): 456471.

Lust-Okar Ellen . (2009) “Legislative Elections in Hegemonic Authoritarian Regimes: Competitive Clientelism and Resistance to Democratization” in Democratization by Elections. Ed. By Lindberg. Staffan (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press) pp. 10127.

Magaloni Beatriz . (2006) Voting for autocracy: hegemonic party survival and its demise in Mexico. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Nyblade Benjamin , and Reed Steven R. . (2008) Who cheats? Who loots? Political competition and corruption in Japan, 1947–1993. American Journal of Political Science 52, (4): 926941.

Ohman Magnus . (2013) Political Finance Oversight Handbook. (International Foundations for Electoral Systems).

Pepinsky T. (2014) “The institutional turn in comparative authoritarianism”. British Journal of Political Science 44 (3): 63153.

Popova Maria . (2006) “Watchdogs or attack dogs? The role of the Russian courts and the central election commission in the resolution of electoral disputes”. Europe-Asia Studies 58(3): 391414.

Przeworski Adam . (1991) Democracy and the market: Political and economic reforms in eastern Europe and Latin America. (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press).

Rakner Lise and van de Walle. Nicolas (2009) “Opposition Parties and Incumbent Presidents: The New Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Africa”. in Democratization by Elections. Ed. By Lindberg Staffan (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press) pp. 10127.

Reuter Ora . (2010) “The politics of dominant party formation: United Russia and Russia’s Governors.” Europe-Asia Studies 62, (2): 293327.

Reuter Ora John , and Gandhi Jennifer . (2011) “Economic Performance and Elite Defection from Hegemonic Parties”. British Journal of Political Science. 41 (01): 83110.

Reuter Ora John and Robertson Graeme . (2015) “Legislatures, Cooptation, and Social Protest in Contemporary Authoritarian Regimes”. The Journal of Politics 77 (1): 235248.

Rivera Mauricio . (2016) “Authoritarian Institutions and State Repression: The Divergent Effects of Legislatures and Opposition Parties on Personal Integrity Rights” Journal of Conflict Resolution. doi: 10.1177/0022002716632301.

Roberts Sean. P. (2012) Putin’s United Russia Party . (New York; London: Routledge).

Roessler Phillip G. and Howard Marc M. . (2009) “Post-cold war political regimes: When do elections matter?” in Democratization by Elections. Ed. By Lindberg. Staffan (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press) pp. 10127.

Ross Cameron . (2014) “Regional Elections and Electoral Malpractice in Russia: The Manipulation of Rules, Voters, and Votes”. Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia. 3(1): 147172.

Schedler Andreas . (2002) “The Menu of Manipulation”. Journal of Democracy. 13 (2): 3650.

Schedler Andreas . (ed) (2006) Electoral authoritarianism: the dynamics of unfree competition. (Boulder, Colo: L. Rienner Publishers).

Schedler Andreas . (2009) “Sources of Competition under Electoral Authoritarianism” in Democratization by Elections. Ed. By Lindberg. Staffan (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press) pp. 10127.

Schedler Andreas . (2013) The politics of uncertainty: Sustaining and subverting electoral authoritarianism. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Seeberg Merete Bech . (2014) “State Capacity and the paradox of authoritarian elections”. Democratization. 21(7): 12651285.

Shevtsova Lilia . (2012) “Russia under Putin: Titanic looking for its iceberg?” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 45: 209216.

Silitski Vitali . (2005) “Preempting democracy: The case of Belarus”. Journal of Democracy 16 (4): 8397.

Simpser Alberto . (2009) “Unintended Consequences of Election Monitoring” in Election Fraud: Detecting and Deterring Electoral Manipulation . Ed. Alvarez Michael , Hall Thad and Hyde. Susan Brookings Institution Press.

Simpser Alberto . (2013) Why governments and parties manipulate elections: theory, practice, and implications. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sjoberg Fredrik M. (2016) “Bring the party back in: Institutional design for ‘smart election fraud’”. Electoral Studies 44: 307318.

Stewart Susan . (2012) Presidents, oligarchs and bureaucrats: Forms of rule in the post-soviet space. (Burlington, vt; Farnham, Surrey, England;: Ashgate).

Stokes Susan C. (2005) “Perverse accountability: A formal model of machine politics with evidence from Argentina”. The American Political Science Review 99, (3): 315325.

Tucker Joshua . (2002) “The First Decade of Post-Communist Elections and Voting: What Have We Studied and How Have We Studied It?” Annual Review of Political Science. 5:271304.

Tucker Joshua . (2007) “Enough! Electoral Fraud, Collective Action Problems and Post-Communist Colored Revolutions”. Perspectives of Politics . 5(3): 535551.

Wilson Andrew . (2005) Virtual politics: faking democracy in the post-Soviet world. (New Haven: Yale University Press).

White Stephen and Feklyunina Valentina (2011) “Russia’s Authoritarian Elections: The View from Below”. Europe-Asia Studies 63(4): 579602.

White Stephen and Kryshtanovskaya Ol’ga (2011) “Changing the Russian Election: Inside the Black Box”. Europe-Asia Studies 63(4) 557578.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 38 38 20
Full Text Views 6 6 5
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0