The decolonisation process of Madagascar and the subsequent setting up of the first Malagasy Republic in the fifties submitted the Catholic Church, particularly the missionaries, to severe pressure. The Jesuit priest Jean de Puybaudet bearing the colonisers nationality while being engaged in social activities was exposed to such pressure more than others. His action towards improving human and social condition in the country set him in the midst of political forces. He was mistrustfully looked upon both by the colonial administrators and the new Malagasy leaders. He finally paid the high price of expulsion from Madagascar in 1962.
« A Majunga, en1956, M. Philibert Tsiranana, alors député à l’ Assemblée Nationale française, avec une douzaine de ses camarades, comme lui fonctionnaires moyens de l’ administration coloniale et également originaires d’ ethnies côtières, fondait le parti social démocrate (P.S.D.). » (Chaigneau, 1985, p. 29).