This paper looks at the issue of transnational Christian activities in a colonial setting through a case study of the overseas missionary work of the Nippon Seikôkai (NSKK). Missionary work in the Japanese overseas empire offers an example of Western and Japanese missionary societies and missionaries working in a colonial setting where the colonial overlord was neither European nor Christian but still intent to use religion for the benefit of its imperial rule. As the example of the NSKK shows after 1937 nationalistic concerns rather than transnational ones had become the dominant force behind Japanese overseas missionary work.
Taiwan (1895) Sakhalin (1905) Korea (1910) Micronesia Mandated Territories (1919) as well as the post 1931 overseas sphere of interest that expanded to encompass Manchuria much of North China and South-East Asia.
Yoshida Ryô“Japanese Immigrants and their Christian Communities in North America: A Case Study of the Fukuinkai, 1877–1896,” in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies2007 vol. 34 (1) pp. 229–244 p. 230.
Tsukada Osamu (塚田理)Shoki Nippon Seikôkai no keisei to Imai Judô: Seikôkai Shingakuin sôritsu hachijû shûnen kinengô (初期日本聖公会の形成と今井寿道；聖公会神学院創立80周年記念号, Imai Judô and the formation of the early Nippon Seikôkai: Memorial issue on the 80th anniversary of the foundation of the Anglican Theological College) (Tokyo: Seikôkai Shuppan1992) p. 168.
See A. Hamish IonThe Cross in the Dark Valley: The Canadian Protestant Missionary Movement in the Japanese Empire 1931–1945 (Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press1999) Chapter Four: The Shrine Question pp 81–112.