Transnational Christian Activities in a Colonial Setting

A Case Study of the Overseas Missionary Work of the Nippon Seikôkai in the Japanese Empire 1895–1941

in Social Sciences and Missions
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This paper looks at the issue of transnational Christian activities in a colonial setting through a case study of the overseas missionary work of the Nippon Seikôkai (NSKK). Missionary work in the Japanese overseas empire offers an example of Western and Japanese missionary societies and missionaries working in a colonial setting where the colonial overlord was neither European nor Christian but still intent to use religion for the benefit of its imperial rule. As the example of the NSKK shows after 1937 nationalistic concerns rather than transnational ones had become the dominant force behind Japanese overseas missionary work.

Transnational Christian Activities in a Colonial Setting

A Case Study of the Overseas Missionary Work of the Nippon Seikôkai in the Japanese Empire 1895–1941

in Social Sciences and Missions

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References

1

Taiwan (1895) Sakhalin (1905) Korea (1910) Micronesia Mandated Territories (1919) as well as the post 1931 overseas sphere of interest that expanded to encompass Manchuria much of North China and South-East Asia.

6

KimEmpire of Dharma p. 15.

7

Jun UchidaBrokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea 1876–1945 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center2011) pp. 39–40.

9

Steven Vertovec“Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism,” Ethnic and Racial Studiesvol. 22 no. 2 (March 1999) pp. 447–462 p. 447.

10

Yoshida Ryô“Japanese Immigrants and their Christian Communities in North America: A Case Study of the Fukuinkai, 1877–1896,” in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies2007 vol. 34 (1) pp. 229–244 p. 230.

11

Ibid. p. 230.

12

Tsukada Osamu (塚田理)Shoki Nippon Seikôkai no keisei to Imai Judô: Seikôkai Shingakuin sôritsu hachijû shûnen kinengô (初期日本聖公会の形成と今井寿道;聖公会神学院創立80周年記念号, Imai Judô and the formation of the early Nippon Seikôkai: Memorial issue on the 80th anniversary of the foundation of the Anglican Theological College) (Tokyo: Seikôkai Shuppan1992) p. 168.

14

See A. Hamish IonThe Cross in the Dark Valley: The Canadian Protestant Missionary Movement in the Japanese Empire 1931–1945 (Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press1999) Chapter Four: The Shrine Question pp 81–112.

15

See Emily AndersonChristianity and Imperialism in Modern Japan: Empire for God (London: Bloomsbury Academic2014) p. 7.

16

Ibid. p. 20.

17

Cyril Hamilton PowlesVictorian Missionaries in Meiji Japan the Shiba Sect: 1873–1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto-York University Joint Centre on Modern East Asia1987) p. 9.

18

Mark Mullins“Christianity as a Transnational Social Movement,” in Japanese Religion2007 vol. 32 (1&2) pp. 69–87 p. 70 and p. 83.

23

See TsukadaImai Judô pp. 14–15.

25

Ibid. p. 148 p. 236.

26

See Ion“Japanese Christian Overseas Missions” p. 121.

29

A. Hamish IonThe Cross and the Rising Sun Volume 2: The British Protestant Missionary Movement in Japan Korea and Taiwan 1865–1945 (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press1993) p. 142.

31

Ibid. p. 94.

32

Ibid. p. 102.

33

Ibid. p. 114.

35

Ibid. p. 217.

39

TsukadaShoki Nippon Seikôkai pp. 159–160.

41

TsukadaShoki Nippon Seikôkai p. 161.

44

C.J. Corfe“Preface,” The English Church Mission in Corea: Its Faith and Practice (London: A.R. Mowbray 1917) pp. i ii. On his way to Korea Corfe had acquired a Japanese Prayer Book written in Romaji.

48

TsukadaShoki Nippon Seikôkai p. 162.

49

Ibid. p. 169.

50

Ibid. p. 171.

52

H.B. Walton“How I Found Things in Korea,” South Tokyo Diocesan MagazineVol. XIII no. 40 (November 1909) pp. 80–84 p. 82.

53

Ibid. p. 83.

54

TsukadaShoki Nippon Seikôkai p. 178.

55

Ibid. pp. 172–184.

57

Ibid. p. 60.

61

Ibid. p. 249.

62

UchidaBrokers of Empire p. 352.

67

Fukuda“Shinkyô Seikôkai Shi” p. 1.

71

Fukuda“Shinkyô Seikôkai Shi” p. 5.

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