This article discusses and analyzes mothering that crosses boundaries of care in spite of differences of nationality, culture and religion. Swedish missionary Alma Johansson was one of a remarkable number of women missionaries who volunteered as relief workers during the Armenian refugee crisis. These women missionaries were often seen as mothers who were ‘saving a whole generation’. The article shows how Johansson acted as an external mother and created transnational bonds of solidarity between Swedish and Armenian mothers. The close relationships became a foundation for Armenian children and women to help themselves. However, in this mothering were also ambivalences.
Watenpaugh Keith David“Between Communal Survival and National Aspiration: Armenian Genocide Refugees, The League of Nations, and the Practice of Interwar Humanitarianism”HumanityVol. 5 (2) Summer 2014 pp. 159–181.
See e.g. Bjørnlund Matthias“Before the Armenian Genocide: Danish Missionary and Rescue Operations in the Ottoman Empire, 1900–1914”Haigazian Armenological ReviewVol. 26 2006 pp. 141–164; “ ‘Ett Folk Myrdes’: Det Armenske Folkmord i Danske Kilder” Master’s thesis. Copenhagen: Copenhagen University 2005; Det armenske folkedrab: Fra begyndelsen til enden Copenhagen: Kristeligt Dagblads Forlag 2013; På Herrens Mark. Nødhjælp mission og kvindekamp under det armeniske folkedrab Viborg: Kristeligt Dagblads Forlag 2015; and Okkenhaug Inger Marie “Women on a mission …”; “Scandinavian Missionaries …” “Refugees Relief and Restoration …”; “Religion relief and humanitarian work …” En norsk filantrop. Bodil Biørn og armenierna 1905–1934. Kristiansand: Portal forlag 2016. See also G. Gunner Folkmordet på armenierna – sett med svenska ögon Skellefteå: Artos och Norma förlag 2012; S. Lundgren I svärdets tid: Det osmanska folkmordet på kristna minoriteter. Otalampi: Sahlgrens 2010.
Ünggör Ugur Ümit“Orphans, Converts and Prostitutes: Social Consequences of War and persecution in the Ottoman Empire, 1914–1923”War in HistoryVol. 19 (2) 2012 pp. 175–181. See also Watenpaugh Keith David “Are there Any Children for Sale?: Genocide and the Transfer of Armenian Children (1915–1922)” Journal of Human Rights Vol. 12 2013 pp. 283–295.