Dutch missionaries active in nineteenth century Java (in the former Dutch Indies) found themselves in an exceptional position, namely on the borders between their own, the colonial, and local cultures. This gave them a unique perspective on a range of processes in the colony, but it also made their proselytizing task that much harder. They felt restricted by cultural barriers and constantly had to negotiate with all sides involved. This paper shows how both the missionaries and Javanese Christians negotiated in the transnational space in their attempt to intersect the Christian with the Javanese identity.
N. Fraser, “Transnationalizing the public sphere. On the legitimacy and efficacy of public opinion in a post-West-Phalian world”, Theory, culture and society, Vol. 24 (4), July 2007, pp. 7–9. DOI: 10.1177/0263276407080090.