Same Memory, Different Memorials

The Holy Ghost Fathers (Spiritans), Martyrdom and the Kongolo Massacre

in Social Sciences and Missions
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Abstract

Recent literature on modern martyrdom and memory has focused on cases in which individual groups remember martyrs’ sacrifices by making similar memorials to them. However, this article argues that even if members of a group agree on a martyr narrative, different memorials with diverse meanings can still be erected in memory of the martyrs concerned. This article supports its argument by exploring the case of twenty members of the Holy Ghost Fathers (Spiritans) who were killed on 1 January 1962 in Kongolo in southeastern Congo-Kinshasa. The memorials dedicated to these Spiritans differ substantively with each other by emphasizing different aspects of sacrifice and memory. This article concludes by arguing that the diversity of memorials involved in this case alerts us to the fact that the traditions associated with martyrdom do not always dominate the public memory of those who sacrifice their lives for a cause.

Sections
References
  • Agaba John. (2014). Construction of Uganda Martyr Museum Begins http://www.newvision.co.ug/news/660345-construction-of-uganda-martyrs-museum-begins.html (accessed 23 September 2015).

  • Berghmans Armand. (1986). Joyeux dans l’ Espérance. Gentinnes: E. Oleffe.

  • Burgraff. Joseph (nd). Voici Revenu le Temps des Martyrs. http://www.spiritains.org/psmarc/kongolo/dossier2.htm (accessed 10 October 2015).

  • Cormack Margaret ed. (2002). Sacrificing the Self: Perspectives in Martyrdom and Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Crownshaw Richard. (2014). History and Memorialization. In Stefan Berger and Bill Niven eds. Writing the History of Memory. London: Bloomsbury.

  • Cruise O’Brien Connor. (2015). To Katanga and Back: A UN Case History. London: Faber and Faber.

  • Darmont Jules. (1999). Les Évènements du 1 Janvier 1962. http://users.skynet.be/kongolo/MASSATEM08.htm (accessed 5 November 2015).

  • Dembour Marie-Bénédict. (1992). La Chicote Comme Symbole du Colonialisme Belge. Canadian Journal of African Studies 26 (2) pp. 205–225.

  • Dibwe dia Mwembu Donatien. (1999). L’ Épuration Ethnique au Katanga et l’ Éthique du Redressement des Torts du Passé. Canadian Journal of African Studies 33 (2–3) pp. 483–499.

  • Fodor Eugene. (1971). Belgium and Luxemburg. New York: David Kat Company.

  • Gérard-Libois Jules. (1966). Katanga Secession (Translated by Rebecca Young). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

  • Gérard-Libois Jules and Verhaegen Benoît. (2015). Congo 1964: Political Documents from a Developing Nation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Gizenga Antoine. (2011). Ma Vie et Mes Luttes. Paris: L’ Harmattan.

  • Halberstam David. (1962). Priest and his Rescuer Confirm Massacre at Mission in Kongolo. New York Times p. 3.

  • Hempstone Smith. (1962). Katanga Report. London: Faber and Faber.

  • Kennes Erik en collaboration avec Munkana N’Ge. (2003). Essai Biographique sur Laurent Désiré Kabila. Paris: L’ Harmattan.

  • Kennes Erik and Larmer Miles. (2016). The Katangese Gendarmes and War in Central Africa: Fighting Their Way Home. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

  • Koren Henry J. (1958). Essays on the Spiritan Charism and on Spiritan History. Bethal Park: Spiritus Press.

  • Lawson Richard G. (1963). Strange Soldiering. London: Hodder and Stroughton.

  • Lepage Thibaut and Leeman Antoine. (nd). Le Mémorial Kongolo. http://lememorialkongolo.blogspot.co.uk/p/le-memorial-et-son-histoire.html (accessed 7 October 2015).

  • L’ Essor du Congo. La Voix du Bahemba du Katanga: Ultimatum aux Baluba. 4 novembre 1960 p. 6

  • L’ Essor du Congo. Le Conakat Reçoit les Chefs Coutumières. 2 novembre 1959 p. 2.

  • Likaka Osumaka. (1997). Rural Society and Cotton in Colonial Zaire. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

  • Likaka Osumaka. (2010). Naming Colonialism: History and Collective Memory in the Congo 1870–1960. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

  • Loffman Reuben. (2011). In the Shadow of the Tree Sultans: African Elites and the Shaping of Early Colonial Politics on the Katangan Frontier. Journal of Eastern African Studies 5 (3) pp. 535–552.

  • Mackie Gillian. (1995). Symbolism and Purpose in an Early Christian Martyr Chapel: The Case of San Vittore in Ciel d’ Oro Milan. Gesta 34 (2) pp. 91–101.

  • Maddrell Avril. (2014). Contextualising Sacred Sites Pathways and Shared Heritage: Local History Ecumenism and National Identity. In: Avril Maddrell Veronica della Dora Alessandro Scarfi and Heather Walton eds. Christian Pilgrimage Landscape and Heritage: Journeying to the Sacred London: Routledge.

  • Markowitz Marvin. (1973). Cross and Sword: The Political Role of Christian Missions in the Belgian Congo 1908–1960. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.

  • Mosier Alicia. (2001). The Catholic Martyrs of the Twentieth Century: A Comprehensive World History. http://www.firstthings.com/article/2001/04/the-catholic-martyrs-of-the-twentieth-century-a-comprehensive-world-history (accessed 4 November 2015).

  • Mosconi Gianpaolo. (2009). Blessed Marie-Clementine Anuarite: Jesus Alone. New Bedford MA: Academy of the Immaculate.

  • Nzongola-Ntalaja Georges. (2002). The Congo: From Leopold to Kabila: A People’s History. London: Zed Books.

  • Omasombo Jean ed. (2014). Tanganyika: Espace Fécondé par le Lac et le Rail. Tervuren: Musée Royal de l’ Afrique Centrale.

  • Peemans Jean-Philippe. (1980). Imperial Hangovers: Belgium – The Economics of Decolonization. Journal of Contemporary History 15 (2) pp. 257–286.

  • Quartier Thomas. (2014). Monastic Martyrs of Compassion: Murdered Trappist Monks in Algeria and Meanings of Martyrdom. Mortality 19 (2) pp. 224–242.

  • Royal Robert. (2006). The Catholic Martyrs of the Twentieth Century: A Comprehensive History. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company.

  • Seyssens Maurice. (2008). Réflexions par M. Seyssens à Propos des Faits du 1 Janvier 1962 á Kongolo. http://users.skynet.be/kongolo/MASSAKONG.htm#TEMSEYSM (accessed 6 April 2015).

  • Slevin Bernard. (1962). Kongolo Massacre: The Supreme Achievement. Bromley: Paraclete Press.

  • The Spiritans RP Jean-Marie Godefroid. http://spiritains.forums.free.fr/defunts/godefreu.htm (accessed 20 October 2015).

  • The Spiritans RP Walter Gilljins. http://spiritains.forums.free.fr/defunts/gillijeu.htm (accessed 20 October 2015).

  • The Spiritans 50th Anniversary of the Death of the Kongolo Martyrs 31/01.2012. http://www.spiritans.co.uk/index.php?mod=news&id=8 (accessed 22 January 2015).

  • The Spiritans Pere Jules Darmont. http://users.skynet.be/kongolo/MASSATEM08.htm (accessed 3 November 2015).

  • The Spiritans Les Témoignages des Séminaristes de la 6° et 7° Latine. http://users.skynet.be/kongolo/MASSATEM.htm (accessed 4 November 2015).

  • Somville Max ed. (1962). Congo: Les Martyrs de Kongolo. Bruxelles.

  • Reid Donald M. (1984). The Symbolism of Postage Stamps: A Source for the Historian. Journal of Contemporary History 19 (2) pp. 223–249.

  • de Souza Father Raymond. (2015). The Hate that Created a New Breed of Martyr. http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/issues/may-29th-2015/the-hate-that-created-a-new-breed-of-martyr/ (accessed on 23 March 2017).

  • United Nations Archives New York (UN) S-0212–0002 United Nations Operations in the Congo (ONUC) – Incident Reports ‘Kongolo Incident’ 1 January 1962–30 April 1962.

  • Vellut Jean-Luc. (2017). 1944–1960: La Marche Vers L’ Indépendance du Congo Belge. In: Jean-Luc Vellut. Congo: Ambitions et Désenchantements 1880–1960. Paris: Éditions Karthala.

  • Verhaegen Benoit. (1966). Rébellions au Congo: Tome 1. Bruxelles: C.R.I.S.P. 1.

  • Volk Lucia. (2010). Memorials and Martyrs in Modern Lebanon. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

  • Woodward Kenneth L. (1996). Making Saints: How the Catholic Church Determines Who Becomes a Saint Who Doesn’t and Why. London: Simon and Schuster.

  • Young Crawford. (1965). Politics in Congo: Decolonization and Independence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Young James Edward. (1993). The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Figures
Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 105 104 2
Full Text Views 59 59 0
PDF Downloads 12 12 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0