REFLECTIONS ON A NEW INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLE 12 OF THE CÓDIGO CIVIL

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REFLECTIONS ON A NEW INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLE 12 OF THE CÓDIGO CIVIL

in Spanish Yearbook of International Law Online

References

1. Art. 12 of the Spanish Cðdigo Civil (Royal Decree 1836tl974, 31 May) states: "1. The qualification used to determine the rule of conflict applicable will always be done in accordance with Spanish law. 2. The remission to foreign law will be understood to be to its material law, without taking into account the renvoi that its rules of conflict can make to laws other than Spanish law. 3. In no case will foreign law be applicable when it is contrary to public policy. 4. Fraudulent evasion of the law is considered to be the use of a rule of conflict in order to avoid a mandatory Spanish law. 5. When a rule of conflict remits to the law of a State in which there coexist different legislative systems, the determination of which one is applicable will be done in accordance with the legislation of that State. 6. Courts and authorities will ex officio apply the rules of conflict of Spanish law. Any individual who invokes foreign law must prove its content and effectiveness by the means of evidence accepted under Spanish law. However, in order to apply foreign law, the judge can use any instrument for gathering information that he considers necessary, and can issue any court he considers appropriate for that purpose."

2. See J.D. Gonzalez Campos and J.C. Fernandez Rozas, Derecho internacional privado, materiales de pr6cticas (Derecho judicial international), vol. 1, p. 40-5 and the bibliography it cites. Inter ali4 R. Arroyo Montero, "Derecho internacional privado y Constituci6n. Proyecci6n en la jurisprudencia espaiiola de la dodrina del Tribunal Constitucional Federal de Alemania", REDI, vol. XL, (1988), p. 89-104 (especially footnote 4). J. D. Gonzalez Campos, Derecho internacional privado. Introduccibn, UAM, 1984, p. 58 et seq. The same in E. Perez Vera et. al., UNED, Derecho internacional privado, 4th ed., 1993, p. 35-55; J. M. Espinar Vicente, "Constituci6n desarrollo, legislatura y Derecho internacional privado", REDI, vol. XXXVIII, 1986, n.1, p. 109-134. 3. On the other hand, it is worthy of note that article 12 of the Cc is not affected by "unexpected unconstitutionality" nor hy the limits on the principle of the impossibility of retroactivity of rules in the sense given this principle by the STC (Division 2), a 80, 20 December 1982. In this regards see STS (Division 1), 6 October 1986, RAJ, 1986, n. 5327, with a note by M. A. Amores Conradf in REDI, 1987, p. 239 248 and the STS (Division 1) dated 9 December 1986, RAJ, 1986, n. 7224, with a note by P. Rodriguez Mateos, REDI, 1988-1, p. 240-246. The immediate

repeal effect of the CE (third derogatory disposition) projected on the entire PIL system in effect at the time of the entry into force of the lex suprema did not bring about the total or partial repeal of art. 12 of the Cc 4. In the words of F. Balaguer Callej6n, Fuentes del Derecho I (Principios del ordenamiento constitucional), Tecnos, (1991), Madrid, p. 159-160. Art. 5 of the LOP! conditions the general rules of interpretation provided for in arts. 3 and 4 of the C6digo Civil and also in PIL. For J. D. Gonzalez Campos (in the UNED collection, op. cit, p. 48) "the essential content of the Jaws and freedoms recognized by the CE" should form the basis for "the process of application of the en-tire system." 5. Along these lines, and in relation to the determination of affiliation in Spanish PIL (art. 9.4 of the Cc), J. D. Gonzalez Campos proposes "to achieve an optimization of the values found in art. 39.2 CE" ("favor filii") and confirms that the expression "personal Jaw" used in art. 9.4 of the Cc can be understood either as the child's national law or habitual residence law, which is com- bined with a "flexibilization" of arts. 9.1 and 9 Cc. J.D. Gonzalez Campos et. a]., Derecho international privado, 5th revised ed., (1993), Madrid, p. 504. 6. An example of this is the decision of the Court of First Instance in Mieres on 28 December 1981 (V Fernandez Coma v. F Mallo Belftin") and the decision of the Audiencia Territorial of Oviedo (Civil Division) 20 October 1982, witb a note by M. Fernandez Fernandez in REDI, (1983), p. 522-528.

7. Specifically, collaboration "on the strengthening of pacific relations and effective cooperation among all the peoples of the Earth." In this sense, the proposal made by J.C. Fernandez Rozas and S. Sanchez Lorenzo, Curso de derecho international privado, Civitas, 2nd ed., (1993), Madrid, p. 140. J.D. Gonzalez Campos suggests that the three most urgent objectives of a reform of Spanish PIL (among which we find the "optimization of the values of the CE") cannot be met unless there is a "special law on PIL*. J. D. Gonzalez Campos in E. Perez Vera et aL, op. cit. p. 41. 8. This expression is by J.D. Gonzalez Campos: "La deception del Derecho internacional privado convencional en el ordenamiento espaiiol," I Jornadas de profesores de DdP, (Le6n, 19130 May 1989), unedited. See A. Alvarez Rodriguez. "Jornadas sobre el DIPr convencional en el sistema espanol: problemas de incorporaci6n y aplicaci3n", REDI, vol. XLI, (1989), n. 2, p. 685- 688. 9. For all of these see J.C. Fernandez Rozas, "Comentario al art. 9.7 C.c." in Comentario del C6digo Civil, (1991), Ministry of Justice, p. 92 94, related to the agreement between Spain and the Republic of Uruguay on the conflicts of law in matters related to the support of minor children and the recognition and enforcement of decisions and legal transactions related to child support, done in Montevideo, 4 November 1987 (BOE n. 31, 5.2.1992). The lack of coordination can be perceived in other sectors of PIL, especially in the recognition and enforcement of decisions. In this regard see J.C. Fernandez Rozas and S. Sanchez Lorenzo, op. cit., p. 616.

10. A. Borras Rodriguez, N. Bouza Vidal, J.D. Gonzalez Campos and M. Virg6s Soriano, Pr6logo a la Legislaci6n 66sic de Derecho internacional privado, Tecnos, 3d ed., (1993), Madrid, p.19. 11. As P. Rodrfguez Mateos says on the occasion of the regulation of the market, the autonomous legal systems begin to work when the market that is affected is the domestic market. If it is the Community market, Community law is applied. If there are no Community rules yet, the autonomous rules can be applied per excepcionem. P Rodriguez Mateos, Sistema de mercado y trdfico international de mercanctas, Ed. La Ley, (1992), Madrid, p. 14. 12. F. Rigaux has highlighted the circumstances that serve as "detonators for the application of conventional law" and has traced a parallelism between these circumstances and the point of connection of the rule of conflict. See F Rigaux, Derecho internacional privado, (translation by A. Boards Rodrfguez), Civitas, (1985), Madrid, p. 219-221 and 224. This is connected to the author's attempt to make specific PIL from PIL. See F. Rigaux "La mdthode des conflits de lois dans les codifications et projets de cedifications de la derniere decennie" RCDIP, 1985, p. 26. ld, "L'espace et le temps en droit international prive", Droit international et droit communautaire, (Actes du colloque, Paris, S--6 April 1990), (1991), Paris, p. 227-236.

13. The foundations for the rules of autonomous PIL that are not found in the Cc increase exponentially In this sense it is possible to detect a process of "formal decodification of PIL" as M. Virg6s Soriano warned in E. Perez Vera et ail, op. cit. p. 85. We can also find on this topic the recent article by D. P. Fernandez Arroyo, "L'influence des conventions internationales sur I'adualisation du droit international: le cas latinoamiricain" in Permeabilitl des ordres juridiques, (Rapports prisentts a V occasion du couoque-anniversaire de linstitut Suisse de Droit ComparE), (1992), p. 217 234 (especially pp. 232 et seq.). For this author, the new special laws that affect PIL are not exceptions or developments of the Cc but rather enforcement (direct) of constitutional mandates: ad ex. Law 16/1989,17 July on the defense of competition (BOE, ml70,l8.7.1989), Law 3/1991,10 January on unfair competition (BOE, n.10, 11.1.1991), Law 26/1984, 19 July (BOE, n.191, 25.7.1984), Law 22/87 on copyrights (BOE n.275, 17.11.1987), to name a few). This contributes to the "erosion" of codicial PIL which, nevertheless, has not caused the total abandonment of this formal hase of PIL 14. D.P. Fernandez Arroyo, °L'influence..." op. cit., p. 217-234.

15. J.C. Fernindez Rozas and S. Sanchez Lorenzo: op. cit, p. 29-33. The doctrine limits the application of certain rules of functioning to the sector of applicable law. An example is the position taken by M. Virgds Soriano in relation to art. 9.9 of the Cc M. Virgds Soriano. "Comentario al art. 9.9 Cc" Comentario del Cbdigo Civil, op. ciL, p. 101. 16. An example is given in A. Marin. Dtrtcho internacional privado (Private international law) General section, 8th ed. (1993) Granada, p. 338. In another context, the doctrine tried to reproduce the schema found in article 12 of the Cc on the application of the law in other sectors of private international law. Cfr. P. Abarca lunco in E. Perez Vera tt aL, op. cit p.124-128 in relation to the "fraudulent evasion of applicable law". 17. See the opinions of M. A. Amores Conradf in J. D. Gonzilez Campos et aL, op. cit., p. 301-303, in relation to the right to compete and antitrust rights (Law 16/1989, 17 July on the defense of competition, arts. 1 and 6, BOE, n.170, 18.7.1989) and those of M. Viragos Soriano, El comercio internacional en el nuevo derecho espanol de la competencia desletg (1993), Madrid, p. 127-135 as regards art. 4 of Law 3/1991,10 January, on unfair competition. In the authors' opinion and as regards the cases cited, this is a case of "implicit or explicit rules on the spatial scope of the effect of both rules, using a unilateral technique in which, once again, only the situations that affect Spanish markets are regulated" without this being a barrier to timely bilateralizations of those rules.

18. The existence in some sectors of rules that use different regulating techniques requires the interpreter to come up with a "functional reordering" of the system (J.C. Fernandez Rozas and S. Sinchez Lorenzo, op ciL, p. 441—442), an operation in which the rule of conflict ends up being the general or residual rule or the rule of closure if it in reality is not eliminated completely. As M. Virg6s Soriano states in El comercio..., op. cit, p. 129, in our PIL we can find a broad group of related matters that are governed hy unilateral criteria (antitrust law, law on competition and law on non-material goods). This is not, obviously the only one (cfr. art. 3 of Law 24/1988, 28 July on the stock market, BOE n.181, 29.7.88). 19. According to the thesis that is defended by the majority of authors, especially J.D. Gonzalez Campos, L.I. Sinchez Rodrfguez, M.P. Andres Siena de Santa Marfa, Curso de Derecho international priblico, vol. 1, 4th ed., (1990), Madrid, p. 235-241, which also include the divergent opinions of E. Garcfa de Enterrfa and T.R. Fernandez, I. de Otto y Pardo, and A. Remiro Brot6ns. 20. As a simple example it is worth remembering that the Hague Convention of 2 October 1973 on the Law Applicable to Product Liability (BOE n.21, 25.1.1989), overrides the more general art. 10.9 of the Cc; the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 on Jurisdiction and Applicable Law on Minors Protection (BOE, n.199, 20.8.1987), overrides the more general art. 9.6 of the Cc; the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 on the Conflicts of Laws Relating to the Form of Testamentary Dispositions (BOE, n.197, 17.8.1988), displaces the more general art. 11 of the Cc even though doctrine is not unanimous on the degree to which this convention displaces the autonomous rules (car. J. D. Gonzalez Campos, "Comentario al art. 732 and 733 of the C6digo Civil Comentario..., op. ciL (1991), Madrid, p. 1822-1828 and A. L. Calvo Caravaca in J. D. Gonzalez Campos et aL, op. eft p. 551-553). The auctoritas specialis derived from the fact that internatio-nal agreements only regulate the cases related to the parties to the agreements disappears in the case of "open conventions" (also called erga omnes) which produce an effect of total "substitution" or "displacement" of the autonomous rule or regulation and a partial substitution or displacement of rules of application (this exists in relation to the rest of the matters which are not affected by conventional rules). This, however, does not imply that conventional rnles cannot include an auctoritas specialis ratione materiae related to the autonomous rules.

21. As regards the agreements known as erga omnes which "displace" or "substitute" autonomous PIL, see the thoughts of P. Domfnguez Lozano, "La ley aplicable a las obligadones de alimentos en DEPR espanol", REDI, (1989), p. 433—486. The "displacement" of art. 12 of the Cc that the conventional solutions provide do not depend on whether or not they are erga omnes agreements. Each agreement is to be applied within its own scope of application and in accordance with its own "terms of applicability" (F. Rigaux) and in these cases the so-called "displacement" will occur. 22. J.D. Gonzilez Campos in E. Perez Vera et aL, op. cit p. 57. See The Vienna Convention on Treaty Law, 23 May 1969, instrument of accession 2 May 1972 (BOE, n.142,13.6.1980). 23. Some of these are art. 5 of the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction in relation to the concepts of "rights of custody" and "rights of access"; of art. 12 of the Hague Convention of 4 May 1971 on the Law Applicable to Traffic Accidents, in relation to the concept of "traffic accident"; art. 5 of the Rome Convention of 19 June 1980 on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations, in relation to "contracts entered into by consumers". Among the agreements that are not in force in Spain, ad ex., art. 8 of the Hague Convention of 1 August 1989 on the Law Applicable to Succession to the Estates of Deceased Persons, in relation to the concept of "agreement as to succession" and art. 2 of the Hague Convention of 1 July 1985 on the Law Applicable to Trusts and on their Recognition, in relation to the concept of this institution.

24. Cfi. the role of the European Court of Justice as regards the Rome Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations dated 19 June 1980 (JOCE, n.L 266, 9.10.1980 and BOE n.171, 19.8.1993 and n.189, 9.8.1993), related to the two Protocols on the interpretation of this concept by that Court, done in Brussels, 19 December 1988 (DOCE, n.L 48, 20.2.1989). In a different sector, see the role of the same Court in relation to the Brussels Convention of 27 September 1968 on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters by means of the protocol related to its interpretation by the Court of Justice, done in Luxembourg, 3 June 1971 (DOCE C 189n.5, 28.7.1990, BOE n.24, 28.1.1991 and BOE 30.4.1991). 25. Thus, art. 12 of the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 on Jurisdiction and Applicable Law on Minors Protection, as regards the concept of "minor". 26. Cfr. the concept of "contract" in the Rome Convention of 19 June 1980 on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations previously cited. 27. A. Borrds Rodrfguez, "Comentario al art. 12.2 of the Cc", Comentario del C6digo civil (1991), Madrid, p. 140—42. 28. Ad ex. art. 2.1 of the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 on the Jurisdiction and Applicable Law on Minors Protection. 29. As an example we can use the cases of the Hague Convention of 2 October 1973 on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations (art. 4); the Hague Convention of 2 October 1973 on the Law Applicable to Product Liability (arts. 4 and 5); the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 on the Conflicts of Laws Relating to the Form of Testamentary Dispositions (art. 1); of the Hague Convention of 4 May 1971 on the Law Applicable to Traffic Accidents (art. 3).

30. Once again we can use as an example art. 4 of the Munich Convention of 5 September 1980 on the Law Applicable to Names (BOE n.303,19.12.1980) ; art. 11.1 of the Hague Convention of 2 October 1973 on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations; art. 7 of the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 on Conflicts of Laws Relating to the Form of Testamentary Dispositions; art. 10 of the Hague Convention of 4 May 1971 on the Law Applicable to Traffic Accidents. We can even see that the conventional wording has been adopted in certain sectors of autonomous PIL, specifically by the rules related to the "common regime" of international legal assistance (art.278.4 LOPJ). A criticism of the unjustified lack of coordination that is the result of maintaining different definitions of "public policy". one for autonomous PIL and another for conventional PIL, is offered by J.C Fernandez Rozas and S. Sanchez Lorenzo, Curio..., op.«t p. 485. 31. Ad ex. art. 19 of the Rome Conveution of 19 June 1980 on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations, and art. 12 of the Hague Convention of 4 May 1971 on the Law Applicable to Traffic Accidents. 32. Art. 1.2 of the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 ou the Conflict of Laws Relating to the Form of Testamentary Dispositions, and art. 14 of the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 on Jurisdiction and Applicable Law on Minors Protection. This has to do with the technical formula that is used by art. 12.5 of the Cc 33. This is the case of art. 16 of the Hague Convention of 14 March 1978 on the Law Applicable to Matrimonial Property Regimes (not in effect in Spain): "in absence of these rules, the spouse will be considered a national of the State in which he/she last habitually resided, and the common nationality of the couple will be that of their last habitual residence." 34. Similar to the ones found in arts. 13,14 and 16 of the Hague Convention of 2 October 1973 on the Law Applicable to Product Liability, and art. 23 of the Hague Convention of 2 Octoher 1973 on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligatious. In essence, this gives the States the right to limit the scope of the Convention to certain parts of its territory and/or the right to formulate a reservation to the Convention with effects limited to a certain part of its territory.

35. J.C. Fernandez Rozas and S. Sanchez Lorenzo, Cwso..., op.ctt. p. 460. 36. Note the impact of the Conventions on information on foreign laws, especially the European Convention done in London on 7 June 1968, on Information on Foreign Law and the Additional Protocol dated 15 March 1978, also ratified by Spain (BOE n.240, 7.10.1974). Cfr. the Inter-American Convention on Proof and Information on Foreign Law, done in Montevideo on 8 May 1979 (BOE 13.1.1988). Some bilateral international agreements include their own rules on information about foreign law which have different rules of functioning and a different scope. For example, the Convention with Mexico of 1 December 1984, regarding the Exchange of Information on Legal Systems (BOE n.137, 8.6.1985); art. 10 of the Convention on Legal Assistance, Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil Matters between the Kingdom of Spain and the Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia, done in Madrid, 4 May 1987 (BOE, n.290, 3.12.1988 and 26.1.1989). In Spanish doctrine see J.A. Tomas Ortiz de la Torre, "El conocimiento del derecho extranjero y la adhesion de Espana al Convenio de Londres de 7 de junio de 1968" Revista General de Legislaci6n y Jurisprudencia, vol. LXIV, n. 232, (1972), p. 721-738; A. Perez Voituriez, La informaci6n de la ley extranjera en el Derecho internacional privado, (1988), Madrid.

37. For example, consider the case of art. 1 of the Hague Convention of 15 November 1965 on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters (BOE n. 203, 25.8.1987). The convention does not include any rules on the law which should be used to classify matters as civil or commercial for purposes of notification. See the comments in this regard of Rapport explicatif by M. V Taborda Ferreira Actes et documents de la dixienw session de la Conference de La Haye, vol. III, (1965) p. 365-366. 38. M.A. Amores Conradf, "Obligaciones no contractuales (estatuto delictual)" in J.D. Gonzalez Campos et al., Derecho international Privado. Parte especial, 5th rev. ed., (1993), Madrid, p. 307-308. 39. BOE n. 202, 24.8.1987 and BOE n. 155, 30.6.1989. 40. Indirectly M. Virg6s Soriano, "Comentario a] art. 9.9 del C6digo Civil", in Comentario del C6digo Cavil, op. ciL (1991), Madrid, p. 101.

41. M.A. Amores Cooradf, "Obligaciones no contractuales (estatuto delictual)" in J. D. Gonzalez Campos et aL, op. cit., p. 307-308. 42. J.D. Gonzalez Campos and J. C. Fern3ndez Rozas, Derecho internacional privado espanol (textos y materiales, vol. I, Derecho judicial international), 2nd ed, (1992), Madrid, p. 265.

43. See EJ. Garcimartfn Alfdrez, Sobre la norma de conflicto y su aplicaci6n judicial (cinco cuesaones cldsicas), (1993), Madrid, p. 14. 44. See P. Mayer, "La convention europeenne des droits de I'homme et I'aplication des normes etrangeres", RCDIP (1991), p. 651-665. 45. This is the position that is defended indirectly by J.D. Gonzalez Campos. In relation to art. 1 of the Hague Convention of 5 October 1961 on Conflicts of Laws Relating to the Form of Testamentary Dispositions, the author postulates that the analogous application of art. 9.9 of the Cc should be used to solve problems of dual citizenship that can be generated by art. 1 of the cited Convention. J. D. Gonzilez Campos, "Comentario al art. 732, par. I y II", Comentario del C6digo civil, op. cit. p. 1823.

46. Law 19/1985,16 July, on negotiable instruments and checks, BO� n. 172,19.7.1985. 47. Normative antinomies or "conflicts of rules" are quite frequent in PIL For example, the operation of "delimitation" in its different fields of application, which is to be applied to the "rules of regulation" is nothing more than resolution of a °conflid of rules" applicable icto oculi to the same foreign situation. See in this respect, J.C Fernindez Rozas and S. Sinchez Lorenzo, Curso..., op.cit. p. 439-444. In a very similar sense, M. Viragos Soriano in E. Perez Vera et. al., op. cit p. 85. In this way, the interest, melius, the ratio legis that shapes the rules can impose its prevalence over

another rule with the opposite content. On the other hand, the aforementioned formal decodification which is affecting Spanish PIL can produce the effect of an "accumulation of regulating rules" (M. VirgGs Soriano), in other words, a "conflid of rules" in PIL. Doctrine offers repeated exam-pies of "conflicts of rules" in PIL, generally as regards rules of regulation. In this sense see, M. A. Amores Conradf, "Comentario al art. 9.1 del C6digo Civil", Comentario del C6digo Civil op. cit, p. 77 in relation to art. 9.1 of the Cc. and "other specific rules" in matters of personal law; M. Moya Escudero in A. Marfn L6pez et. al, Derecho international privado espanol 11. Parte especial Derecho civil international, 8th ed., 1994, Granada, p. 151 in relation to art. 9.2 and art. 9.10 of the Cc. 48. The position traditionally held in the case law of the Spanish TS as regards foreign law is clearly reflected in the judgment issued by the TS (Division 1) on 11 May 1989 (Rr1! (1989), n. 3758). This doctrine can be summed up very quickly in the following points: a) the application of foreign law is a de facto question and as such must be alleged and proven by the party that invokes it; b) the exact law in force and its scope and authorized interpretation must be proven so that there is not even the smallest of reasonable doubts in the Spanish court as to its interpretation; c) proving this should be done by means of the pertinent documentation including a statement by two foreign law consultants and the corresponding certification issued by the consular authorities of the country in question; d) the application of foreign law requires the person invoking it to allege and prove its application and this means that not ody must the law be cited, but its applicability must also be fully demonstrated; e) when Spanish courts cannot find absolute and certain grounds for the application of foreign law, they must judge and rule according to Spanish law. See among others, the following TS decisions (Division 1): 9 July 1895,19 November 1904,30 January 1930,1 1 February 1934, December 1935, 9 January 1936,19 December 1935,19 December 1939, 8 Marc6 1949,30 June 1962, 28 October 1968, 5 November 1971,12 March 1973,3 February 1975, October 1982,15 March 1984.26 May 1987,12 January 1989, November 1989, September 1990 (Division 4), 10 December 1990, 19 June 1991, 16 July 1991, 17 December 1991. Among others, the TS judgment (Division 1) of 17 March 1992 (RrIJ, 1992, n. 2196) states: "the proof of foreign law, which, in spite of the benefits of practising it for the eulightenment of the judicial organ, can be recognized and applied de oficio by the jurisdidional organ or simply accredited by means of a photocopy of the Gazetta offtciale — which is what has happened in this case —which indicates the law to he applied."

49. A.L. Calvo Caravaca states this clearly when dealing with the relation between art. 9.8 of the Cc and art. 12.2 of the Cc: "the rules of application or of functioning - and art. 12. 2 of the Cc is one of them - cannot be understood in an isolated fashion, but rather they should be inter- preted together with the regulating rules". A.L. Calvo Caravaca in J.D. Gonzalez Campos et. al., op. ciL, p. 544-545. From a theoretical point of view, we are dealing with something other than the "integrated interpretation" to which M. Virg6s Soriano makes reference as regards the rules that establish fora of international judicial competence in keeping with the guarantees established in art. 24 of the CE. Cfr. the reference made by J.C. Fernandez Rozas and S. Sanchez Lorenzo, Cursors.., op.cii p. 273. Traditional Spanish doctrine (M. Aguilar Navarro, J.A. Carrillo Salcedo), had already shown the necessity of a "dynamic interpretation" of the rule of conflict, instead of a "static and formalistic" approach which produces poor results. Cfi. J.A. Carrillo Salcedo, Derecho internacional privado, UNED, (1979), Madrid, p. 182. 50. Note that this precept (art. 10.5 of the Cc.) is displaced and therefore inapplicable after the entry into force in Spain of the Convention of Rome on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations dated 19 June 1980 (BOE n.171, 19.7.1993 and n.189, 9.8.1993), produced on 1 September 1993.

51. This criterion of speciality should be deduced from the PIL system by means of legal argumentation based fundamentally on the consideration of the voluntas legislatoris found in each rule of PIL; speciality is the fruit of a systematic interpretation (art. 3.1 of the Cc) as has been pointed out by R K. von Savigny, and in order to do this, a special object must be assigned to each contradictory text and the reciprocal limits of its application should be set. R K. von Savigny, Sistema del Derecho romarw actual (translated from French by J. Mesfa and M. Poley), Madrid, 1879, vol. I, ss. 42 to 45.

52. P Lagarde, "Le principie de proximity dans le droit international privé contemporain (Course g6n6ral de droit international priv€)", Recueil des Cours, (1986-1), vol. 196, p. 9-238. This text provides the criteria that are used as ratio for the modem rules of PIL in the area of applicable law. 53. Implicitly, M. Virg6s Soriano in J.D. Gonzalez Campos et aL, op. cit, p. 198. The more modern systems of PIL expressly exclude renvoi, thereby eliminating in primis normative contradictions.

54. To the contrary we find the judgment of the Audiencia Territorial of Granada dated 22 December 1988 (Lowentahl case) which reflects the Court's concern with finding a case that would justify the application of Spanish law (return renvoi) rather than in finding the most correct solution to the normative contradiction. See the mmmentary on the consequence of this posture by A.L Calvo Caravaca in J.D. Gonzalez Campos et al., op. tit, p. 544—545 and the note by M. Moya Escudero in "Jurisprudencia espa8ola de Derecho international privado", REDI, vol. XLII, (1990), no. 2, p. 635-637 and the text in M. Moya Escudero y J. Carrascosa Gonzalez, Supuestos prdcticos de Derecho internacional privodo espano4 Comares, 1993, Granada, p.111-115. 55. A.L. Calvo Caravaca, "Comentario al art 9.11 del C.c "in Comentario del C6digo civil, op. ciL, p. 103-105. 56. Ratified by Spain, 30 November 1990, BOE, n. 313, 31.12.1990.

57. A. Borras Rodriguez, "Comentario al arc 9.8 Cc in Comentario del C6digo civil, op. cit, p. 95—98. 58. On the function of "autonomous qualification", A. Borras Rodrfguez, "Comentario al art. 12.1 Cc." in Comentario del C6digo civil, op. cit p. 139-140. Id "Comentario al art. 9.8 Cc", loc cit, p. 95-98. For A.L. Calvo Caravaca, however, art. 9.8 of the Cc does not include an autonomous qualification but rather uses "a generic expression to describe the real fact that is governed by the rule". This interpretation seems to be supported by the genesis of art. 9.8 of the Cc (cfr. art. 23 of the Italian Cc of 1938/1942); A.L. Calvo Caravaca in J.D. Gonzalez Campos et aL, op. cit, p. 542). As J.A. Carrillo Salcedo once said, "one thing is the scope of the concepts and another very different matter is the use of autonomous concepts that belong to PIL". J.A Carrillo Saiccdo, op. ciL, p. 188. 59. M. Moya Escudero in A. Marfn L6pez et aL, op. cit, p. 152-153, speaks of an "extensive nature of the real fact that is being governed by the law".

60. M. Moya Escudero in A. Marfn et aL, op. ciL, p. 197.

61. J.D. Gonzalez Campos in J.D. Gonzalez Campos et aL, op. cit p. 509. 62 Implicitly in P Rodrfguez Mateos, La adopci6n internaciona4 (1988), Oviedo, p. 93-104 and 110-124. 63. In REDI, vol. XLII (1991), a 2, p. 532-535, and the suggestive note by P Rodrfguez Mateos. The judgment delves into the position that was timidly set forth in the judgment of the Audiencia Territorial of Valencia (Civil Division) of 3 April 1982, RGD, (1982), p. 1137 et seq. which brings about the exile of the factual quality of foreign law and takes us to the final consequences of the remissive mechanism of the rule of conflict by virtue of its obligatory nature. In a similar sense, the judgment of the Audiencia Provincial of Granada on 12 February 1992, REDI, (1992), with a note by M. Moya Escudero, and the judgment of the jurisdictional organ on

22 October 1992, also with a note by M. Moya Escudero, in Revista de Derecho Bancario y Bursdd4 n. 51, July/September 1993, p. 831-845, under the title of "The Free Circulation of Bills of Exchange in Spanish Private International Law." The Resolution of the Institute of International Law also made a pronouncement of this type in its 64th session held in Santiago de Compostela a (1989). In Spanish doctrine, see the recent contribution made by F. J. Garcimartfn Alferez based on concepts of economic liberalism and the economic analysis of the law, Sobre la norma de conflictos..., op. ctt, passim. 64. RCDIP, 1989, p. 368 et seq. This abandonment seems to be generally accepted and not only limited to matters concerning the status and capacity of individuals. In this sense see the judgment of the French Cour de Cassation (Civ. 1st) 4 October 1989, RCDIP, 1990, pp. 316 et seq. and the note by P. Lagarde. On the other hand, the problem presented in light of the recent French case law which allows the mandate of the rule of conflid to be ignored is quite different, and it makes the law designated by the rule inapplicable and the one agreed to by the parties applicable. This possibility is restricted to matters in which the parties can freely make use of their rights. Cfi. judgment by the Coar de Carsation (Civ. 1st) 19 April 1988, RCDIP, 1988, p. 68 et seq. and the note by H. Batiffol. On this particular item, see the interesting thoughts of A. Ponsard, "L'office du juge et I'application du droit etranger", RCDIP, 1990, p. 607—619. 65. Y Lequette, "L'abandon de la Jurisprudence Bisbal (à propos des arrets de la Premiere chambre civile des 11 et 18 octobre 1988)", RCDIP, 1989, p. 277-330. Specifically on the possibility of a practical repeal of the rule of conflict, on pp. 287 and 330-315. Also on this aspect, A. Flessner, "Fakultatives Kollisionrecht", RabelsZ, 1970, p. 547 et seq. and P. Mayer, Droit international privé, Ed. Montchrestien, (1991), 4th ed., Paris, p. 104-108. 66. BOE n. 240, 7.10.1974. 67. Y Lequette, "L'abandon...", op. cit p. 277-330. B. Ancel: "La connaissance de la loi dtrang6re applicable", Droit international et droit communauiaire� (Actes du colloque, Paris, 5--6 6 avril 1990), (1991), Paris, p. 87-96.

68. C.L. Hamlin, "Quandaries and the Logic of Rules" Journal of Philosophical Logic, 1972-I, p. 74-85. Also, C.E. Alchourron, "conflicts de normas y revision de sistemas normativos" in C.E. Alchourron and E. Bulygin, An6lisis lðgico y Derecho, (1991), Madrid, p. 291-300. 69. On this topic, R Rigaux, Derecho internacional privado, op. cit, p. 270-290.

70. On this topic, J.C Fernandez Rozas and S. Sanchez Lorenzo, Curio..., op. cit, p. 441. 71. TC judgments n. 77/82, 20 December, 16/1990, 26 April. On the need for legal certainty in the area of the interpretation of the law, see TC judgment n. 200/1989, 30 November and 144/1988, 12 July. 72. STC n. 27/81, 20 July.

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