Reviews of the genera Schaefferia Absolon, 1900, Deuteraphorura Absolon, 1901, Plutomurus Yosii, 1956 and the Anurida Laboulbène, 1865 species group without eyes, with the description of four new species of cave springtails (Collembola) from Krubera-Voronya cave, Arabika Massif, Abkhazia

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Krubera-Voronya cave and other deep systems in Arabika Massif are being explored during many speleological expeditions. A recent Ibero-Russian exploration expedition (summer of 2010) took place in this cave with the aim of providing a study of the biocenosis of the deepest known cave in the world. Four new species of Collembola were found at different depths: Schaefferia profundissima n. sp., Anurida stereoodorata n. sp., Deuteraphorura kruberaensis n. sp., and Plutomurus ortobalaganensis n. sp., the last one at -1980 m deep. The identification and description of the new species have required the careful study of all congeneric species, implying a revision of each genus. As a result of this work tables and keys to all significant characters for each species are presented.

Reviews of the genera Schaefferia Absolon, 1900, Deuteraphorura Absolon, 1901, Plutomurus Yosii, 1956 and the Anurida Laboulbène, 1865 species group without eyes, with the description of four new species of cave springtails (Collembola) from Krubera-Voronya cave, Arabika Massif, Abkhazia

in Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews

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References

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Figures

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    Krubera-Voronya cave entrance. Photo by Sofía Reboleira.

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    Krubera-Voronya cave profile, location of Figures 1, 3–5, and locations at which new species were found (red dots and red line). Adapted from Ukrainian Speleological Association 2010, compiled by A. Klimchouk.

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    Location of two or the pitfall traps at -70 m bgl. Photo by Sofía Reboleira.

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    Bivouc at -1600 m bgl. Photo by Sergio Garcia-Dils.

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    The cave at -1980 m bgl, the deepest habitat of Plutomurus ortobalaganensis n. sp. Photo by Denis Provalov.

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    Schaefferia profundissima n. sp. (A) Detail of antennal tip (some cylindrical blunt chaetae are named using the nomenclature of Jordana et al. 1997). (B) Antennae. (C) Leg III. (D) Dorsal head.

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    Schaefferia profundissima n. sp. (A) Furca (t, tenaculum). (B) Dorsal view of Abd IV–VI, showing small areas without granulation.

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    Schaefferia profundissima n. sp. chaetotaxy. (A) Dorsal head (with antenna) and Th. (B) Dorsal Abd. (C) Detail of PAO and granulation beside it. (D) Detail of the ms of Th II.

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    Anurida stereoodorata n. sp. (A) Labrum. (B) Labium. (C) Mandible. (D) Maxillar lamellae (after Fjellberg 1985). (E) Antenna. (F) detail of antenna, ventral view.

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    Anurida stereoodorata n. sp. (A) Habitus, dorsal view. The black spots means crevices and depressions (see Figure 11A) (the arrows point to the ‘sensory’ chaetae) (B–C) Legs III and II respectively. (D) Unguis, lateral view. (E) Ventral view of Abd.

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    Anurida stereoodorata n. sp. SEM microphotographs. (A) Dorsal habitus (A’, ventral Abd tip). (B) Sensory pegs of sensory organ of antennal segment III (scale bar: 20 μm). (C–D) PAO (bars: 70 and 20 μm respectively). (E) Detail of a PAO vesicle, showing perforations (scale bar: 1 μm). (F) Male genital plate (scale bar: 60 μm).

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    Deuteraphorura kruberaensis n. sp. (A) Dorsal chaetotaxy of the thoracic and abdominal tergites (A’, detail of chaeta M and chaeta s of the tergite V) (scale bar: 100 μm). (B) Ant III–IV (B’, detail of the sensory clubs with two sections). (C) PAO (postantennal organ) (scale bar: 20 μm). (D) Dorsal head chaetotaxy (scale bar: 90 μm). (E) Ventral head chaetotaxy (scale bar: 60 μm).

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    Deuteraphorura kruberaensis n. sp. (A) Labrum chaetotaxy (scale bar: 40 μm). (B) Labial palp chaetotaxy (labial papillae A, B, C, D and E) and outer maxillary lobe (f: flattened chaetae). (C) Mandible. (D) Maxilla. (E) Ventral tube (scale bar: 40 μm) (F) Ventral view of Abd IV, with the vestigial furca at the top (scale bar: 50 μm). (G) Detail of the female genital aperture (scale bar: 40 μm). (H) Tibiotarsus, unguis and unguiculus of leg III.

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    Deuteraphorura kruberaensis n. sp. SEM microphotographs. (A) Unguis and unguiculus of leg III. (B) Area of vestigial furca (bar, A and B: 20 μm).

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    Plutomurus ortobalaganensis n. sp. (A) Lateral habitus showing colour pattern (scale bar: 500 μm). (B) Labrum and prelabral chaetae. (C) Trochanter and basal femur, showing the trochanteral organ. (D) Leg III tibiotarsus, showing the shape of chaetae and spine-like chaeta. (E) Basal dental spines. (F) Tenaculum. (G) Detail of the mucro. (H) Body macrochaetotaxy (Ø, pseudopore; O, macrochaetae).

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    Plutomurus ortobalaganensis n. sp. SEM microphotographs. (A–B) Unguis and unguiculus of leg III. (C–D) Mucro in different views (bars, A, C and D: 20 μm; B: 40 μm.

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