The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae): life history, relationship to plant diseases, and management strategies

in Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) has been a major pest of solanaceous crops for decades. This pest can cause damage to crop plants by direct feeding and, as has been recently discovered, by transmitting the bacterial pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Ca. L. solanacearum). Many studies have been conducted to determine the relationship of this pest to plant injury and to develop management strategies to alleviate the damage caused by this pest in a wide variety of solanaceous plants. Studies in the past decade have documented substantial genetic variability in this invasive species, enhanced our rapidly-evolving understanding of the interactions between the insect and the pathogen it carries, and improved our appreciation of the invasive potential of the pest. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive update to B. cockerelli life history, relationship to plant diseases, and the current state of management strategies against B. cockerelli.

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae): life history, relationship to plant diseases, and management strategies

in Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews

Sections

References

AbadJ. A.BandlaM.French-MonarR. D.LieftingL. W.CloverG. R. G.. 2009. First report of the detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species in zebra chip disease-infected potato plants in the United States. Plant Disease.93:108.

AbdullahN. M. M.2008. Life history of the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in controlled environment agriculture in Arizona. African Journal of Agricultural Research3:6067.

Abernathy R. L. 1991. Investigations into the nature of the potato psyllid toxin. Department of Entomology. M. S. Thesis Colorado State University. Fort Collins Colorado USA. 54 pp.

Al-JabrA. M.1999. Integrated pest management of tomato/potato psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with emphasis on its importance in greenhouse grown tomatoes. Ph. D. Dissertation. Colorado State University. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. 93 pp.

Al-JabrA. M.CranshawW. S.. 2007. Trapping tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in greenhouses. Southwestern Entomologist32:2530.

Anonymous. 1939. Psyllid yellows of potato in 1938. Plant Disease Reporter23:24.

ArslanA.BesseyP. M.MatsudaK.OebkerN. F.. 1985. Physiological effects of psyllid (Paratrioza cockerelli) on potato. American Potato Journal62:922.

BabbM. F.KrausJ. E.. 1937. Tolerance of certain potato varieties to psyllid yellows. Nebraska State Board of Agriculture Report 1937:694698.

BaumannP.2005. Biology bacteriocyte-associated endosymbionts of plant sap-sucking insects. Annual Review of Microbiology59:155189.

BerryN. A.WalkerM. K.ButlerR. C.. 2009. Laboratory studies to determine the efficacy of selected insecticides on tomato/potato psyllid. New Zealand Plant Protection62:145151.

BrownJ. K.RehmanM.RoganD.MartinR. R.IdrisA. M.. 2010. First report of “Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous” (synonym “Ca. L. solanacearum”) associated with ‘tomato vein-greening’ and ‘tomato psyllid yellows’ diseases in commercial greenhouses in Arizona. Plant Disease94:376.

BuchnerP.1965. [Endosymbiosis of animals with plant microorganisms]. Interscience PublishersNew York, New York, USA. 909 pp.

BurckhardtD.LautererP.. 1997. A taxonomic reassessment of the triozid genus Bactericera (Hemiptera: Psylloidea). Journal of Natural History31:99153.

ButlerC. D.2011. Management strategies for the potato psyllid in California. Ph. D. Dissertation. University of CaliforniaRiverside. Riverside, California, USA. 192 pp.

ButlerC. D.TrumbleJ. T.. 2011a. Spatial dispersion and binomial sequential sampling for the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on potato. Pest Management Science68:(in press).

ButlerC. D.TrumbleJ. T.. 2011b. New records of hyperparasitism of Tamarixia triozae (Burks) by Encarsia spp. in California. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist87:130133.

ButlerC. D.ByrneF. J.KeremaneM. L.LeeR. F.TrumbleJ. T.. 2011a. Effects of insecticides on behavior of adult Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous. Journal of Economic Entomology104:586594.

ButlerC. D.GonzalezB.ManjunathK. L.LeeR. F.NovyR. G.MillerJ. C.TrumbleJ. T.. 2011b. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous. Crop Protection30:12331238.

ButlerC. D.WalkerG.P.TrumbleJ. T.. 2012. Feeding disruption of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, by imidacloprid as measured by electrical penetration graphs. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata142:247-257.

CarterW.1939. Injuries to plants caused by insect toxins. Botanical Review5:273326.

CarterW.1973. Insects in relation to plant disease2nd edition. John Wiley & SonsNew York, New York, USA. 759 pp.

CasteelC. L.WallingL. L.PaineT. D.. 2006. Behavior and biology of the tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in response to the Mi-1.2 gene. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata121:6772.

CasteelC. L.WallingL. L. and PaineT. D.. 2007. Effect of Mi-1.2 gene in natal host plants on behavior and biology of the tomato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Journal of Entomological Science42:155162.

CompereH.1915. Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Monthly Bulletin of the California State Commission of Horticulture4:12.

CompereH.1916. Notes on the tomato psylla. Monthly Bulletin of the California State Commission of Horticulture5:189191.

CompereH.1943. A new species of Metaphycus parasite on psyllids. Pan-Pacific Entomologist19:7173.

(CNAS) Center for North American Studies. 2006. Economic impacts of zebra chip on the Texas potato industry. http://cnas.tamu.edu/zebra%20chip%20impacts%20final.pdf (Accessed on 11/2011).

Cranshaw W. S. 1985a. Control of potato psyllid and green peach aphid Ft. Collins Colorado USA 1984. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests 10:132.

Cranshaw W. S. 1985b. Control of potato insects with soap sprays Greenley Colorado USA. 1984. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests 10:132.

CranshawW. S.1989a. Potato insect control, 1986. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests14:136.

CranshawW. S.1989b. Potato insect control, 1987. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests14:136.

CranshawW. S.1989c. The potato/tomato psyllid as a vegetable insect pest. pp. 6976. InProceedings of the 18th annual meeting of the Crop Protection Institute ColoradoState UniversityFort Collins, Colorado, USA.

CranshawW. S.1993. An annotated bibliography of potato/tomato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera; Psyllidae). Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin TB93-5. 51 pp.

CranshawW. S.1994. The potato (tomato) psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc), as a pest of potatoes pp. 8395. InZehnderG. W.PowelsonR. K.JanssonR. K.RamanK. V. (eds.) Advances in potato biology and management. APS PressSt. Paul, Minnisota, USA. 655 pp.

CranshawW. S.LiewehrD. J.. 1990. Effects of colored sprays on aphid and psyllid colonization of potatoes. Southwestern Entomologist15:205209.

CrawfordD. L.1910. American Psyllidae I. (Triozinae). Pomona Journal of Entomology2:228237.

CrawfordD. L.1911. American Psyllidae III. (Triozinae). Pomona Journal of Entomology3: 421453.

CrawfordD. L.1914. A monograph on the jumping plant-lice of the new world. United States National Museum Bulletin85. 186 pp.

CrosslinJ. M.BesterG.. 2009. First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ in zebra chip symptomatic potatoes from California. Plant Disease93:551.

CrosslinJ. M.MunyanezaJ. E.BrownJ. K.LieftingL. W.. 2010. A history in the making: potato zebra chip disease associated with a new psyllid-borne bacterium-a tale of striped potatoes. http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/PotatoZebraChip.aspx. (Accessed on 1/2011).

DanielsL. B.1954. The nature of the toxicogenic condition resulting from the feeding of the tomato psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Ph.D. Dissertation. University of MinnesotaSt. Paul, Minnesota, USA. 119 pp.

DavisA. C.1937. Observations on the life history of Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc) in southern California. Journal of Economic Entomology30:377378.

DavidsonM. M.TeulonD. A. J.ScottI. A. W.WorkmanP.. 2008.A review of the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli); a new pest of potato in New Zealand. p. 14Crop & Food Research Confidential Report No. 2231.

DemirelN.CranshawW.. 2006. Relative effect of color mulches to potato/tomato psylld, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), on garden tomato plants. Journal of Economic Entomology3:189193.

(ESA) Entomological Society of America. 2011. Common names of insects database. Entomological Society of America at: http://www.entsoc.org/common-names (Accessed on 10/2011).

EssigE. O.1917. The tomato and laurel psyllids. Journal of Economic Entomololgy10:433444.

EyerJ. R.1937. Physiology of psyllid yellows of potatoes. Journal of Economic Entomology30:891898.

EyerJ. R.EnzieJ. V.. 1939. Dusting and spraying for the control of insect pests of the Irish potato. New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin266. 40 pp.

EyerJ. R.MillerM.. 1937. A study of the pathological anatomy of psyllid yellows with special reference to similar changes in sugar beets affected with curly top. Phytopathology.28:669.

EyerJ. R.CrawfordR. F.. 1933. Observations on the feeding habits of the potato psyllid (Paratrioza cockerelli Sulc) and the pathological history of the “psyllid yellows” which it produces. Journal of Economic Entomology26:846853.

FergusonG.BanksE.FraserH.. 2002. Potato psyllid - a new pest in greenhouse tomatoes and peppers. Ontario Ministry of Food and AgricultureCanada, Ontario, Canada. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/potato_psyllid.htm. (Accessed on 1/2011).

FerrisG. F.1925. Observations on the Chermidae (Hemiptera; Homoptera). Part II. Canadian Entomologist57:4650.

French-MonarR. D.PattonA. F.IIIDouglasJ. M.AbadJ. A.SchusterG.WallaceR. W.WheelerT. A.. 2010. First report of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” on field tomatoes in the United States. Plant Disease94:481.

GaoF.JifonJ.YangX.LiuT.-X.. 2009. Zebra chip disease incidence on potato is influenced by timing of potato psyllid infestation, but not by the host plants on which they were reared. Insect Science16:399408.

GerhardtP. D.1966. Potato psyllid and green peach aphid control on Kennebec potatoes with Temik® and other insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology59:911.

GerhardtP. D.TurleyD. L.. 1961. Control of certain potato insects in Arizona with soil applications of granulated phorate. Journal of Economic Entomology54:12171221.

GharalariA. H.NansenC.LawsonD. S.GilleyJ.MunyanezaJ. E.VaughnK.. 2009. Knockdown mortality, repellency, and residual effects of insecticides for control of adult Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Journal of Economic Entomology102:10321038.

GillG.2006. Tomato psyllid detected in New Zealand. Biosecurity69:1011.

GlickP. A.1939. The distribution of insects, spiders, and mites in the air. USDA Technical Bulletin673. 150 pp.

GoolsbyJ. A.BextineB.MunyanezaJ. E.SetamouM.AdamczykJ.BesterG.. 2007a. Seasonal abundance of sharpshooters, leafhoppers, and psyllids associated with potatoes affected by zebra chip disorder. Subtropical Plant Science59:1523.

GoolsbyJ. A.AdamczykJ.BextineB.LinD.MunyanezaJ. E.BesterG.. 2007b. Development of an IPM program for management of the potato psyllid to reduce incidence of zebra chip disorder in potatoes. Subtropical Plant Science59:8594.

GuedotC.HortonD. R.LandoltP. J.. 2010. Sex attraction in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Environmental Entomology39:13021308.

HansenA. K.TrumbleJ. T.StouthamerR.PaineT. D.. 2008. A new Huanglongbing, “Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous,” found to infect tomato and potato, is vectored by the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc). Applied and Environmental Microbiology74:58625865.

HardingJ. A.1962. Tests with systemic insecticides for control of insects and certain diseases on potato. Journal of Economic Entomology55:6265.

HartmanG.1937. A study of psyllid yellows in Wyoming. Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin220. 39 pp.

HenneD. C.WorknehF.WenA.PriceJ. A.PascheJ. S.GudmestadN. C.RushC. M.. 2010. Characterization and epidemiological significance of potato plants grown from seed tubers affected by zebra chip disease. Plant Disease94:659665.

HillR. E.1945. Effects of DDT and other insecticides on several species of potato insects. Nebraska Agricultural Station Research Bulletin138. 14 pp.

HillR. E.1947. An unusual weather sequence accompanying the severe potato psyllid outbreak of 1938 in Nebraska. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Socciety20:8892.

HodkinsonI. D.2009. Life cycle variation and adaptation in jumping plant lice (Insecta: Hemiptera: Psylloidea): a global synthesis. Journal of Natural Histtory43:65179.

JacksonB. C.GoolsbyJ.WyzykowskiA.VitovksyN.BextineB.. 2009. Analysis of genetic relationships between potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) populations in the United States, Mexico and Guatemala using ITS2 and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) data. Subtropical Plant Science61:15.

JensenD. D.1954. Notes on the potato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Pan-Pacific Entomologist30:161165.

JensenD. D.1957. Parasites of the Psyllidae. Hilgardia.27:7199.

JensenJ. H.1939. Psyllid yellows in Nebraska – 1938. Plant Disease Reports23:3536.

JohnsonT. E.1971. The effectiveness of Tetrastichus triozae Burks (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a biological control agent of Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in north central Colorado. M. S. Thesis. Colorado State University. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. 45 pp.

KnowltonG. F.1931. Some economic insects of Utah-1931. Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences8:143146.

KnowltonG. F.1933a. Aphis lion predators of the potato psyllid. Journal of Economic Entomology26:977.

KnowltonG. F.1933b. Ladybird beetles as predators of the potato psyllid. Canadian Entomologist65:241243.

KnowltonG. F.1933c. Length of adult life of Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Journal of Economic Entomology26:730.

KnowltonG. F.1933d. Notes on injurious Utah insects: potato psyllid. Proc. Utah Acad. Sci.10:153.

KnowltonG. F.1934a. A big-eyed bug predator of the potato psyllid. Florida Entomologist18:4043.

KnowltonG. F.1934b. Potato psyllid investigations. Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences11:261265.

KnowltonG. F and AllenM. A.. 1936. Three hemipterous predators of the potato psyllid. Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences13:293294.

KnowltonG. F.JanesM. J.. 1931. Studies on the biology of Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am.24: 283291.

KnowltonG. F.ThomasW. L.. 1934. Host plants of the potato psyllid. Journal of Economic Entomology27:547.

LaceyL. A.de la RosaF.HortonD. R.. 2009. Insecticidal activity of entomopathogenic fungi (Hypocreales) for potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae): development of bioassay techniques, effect of fungal species and stage of the psyllid. Biocontrol Science and Technology19:957970.

LaceyL. A.LiuT.-X.BuchmanJ. L.MunyanezaJ. E.GoolsbyJ. A.HortonD. R.. 2011. Entomopathogenic fungi (Hypocreales) for control of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in an area endemic for zebra chip disease of potato. Biological Control56:271278.

LehmanR. S.1930. Some observations on the life history of the tomato psyllid (Paratrioza cockerelli Sulc) (Homoptera). Journal of the New York Entomological Society38:307312.

LiW.AbadJ. A.French-MonarR. D.RascoeJ.WenA.GudmestadN. C.SecorG. A.LeeI.-M.DuanY.LevyL.. 2009. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection, identification and quantification of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in potato plants with zebra chip. Journal of Microbiological Methods78:5965.

LieftingL. W.WardL. I.ShillerJ. B.CloverG. R. G.. 2008a. A new ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species in Solanum betaceum (tamarillo) and Physalis peruviana (cape gooseberry) in New Zealand. Plant Disease92:1588.

LieftingL. W.SutherlandP. W.WardL. I.PaiceK. L.WeirB. S.CloverG. R. G.. 2009. A new ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species associated with diseases of solanaceous crops. Plant Disease93:208214.

LieftingL. W.Perez-EgusquizaZ. C.CloverG. R. G.AndersonJ. A. D.. 2008b. A new ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species in Solanum tuberosum in New Zealand. Plant Disease92:1474.

LinH.LouB.GlynnJ. M.DoddapeneniH.CiveroloE. L.ChenC.DuanY.ZhouL.VahlingC. M.. 2011. The complete genome sequence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, the bacterium associated with potato zebra chip disease. PLoS ONE.6:113.

LinH.DoddapeneniH.MunyanezaJ. E.CiveroloE. L.SengodaV. G.BuchmanJ. L.StengerD. C.. 2009. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA from a new “Candidatus Liberibacter” strain associated with zebra chip disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc). Journal of Plant Patholology1:215219.

LinfordM. B.1928. Psyllid-yellows (cause undetermined). Plant Disease Report Supplement59:9599.

ListG. M.1918. A test of lime sulphur and nicotine sulfate for the control of the tomato psyllid and effect of these materials upon plant growth. Ninth Annual Report of the State Entomolologist of Colorado. 1917. 47: 16.

ListG. M.1935. Psyllid yellows of tomatoes and control of the psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli Sulc, by use of sulphur. Journal of Economic Entomology28:431436.

ListG. M.1938. Tests of certain materials as controls for the tomato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc), and psyllid yellows. Journal of Economic Entomology31:491497.

ListG. M.1939. The effect of temperature upon egg deposition, egg hatch and nymphal development of Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Journal of Economic Entomology32:3036.

ListG. M.DanielsL. B.. 1934. A promising control for psyllid yellows of potatoes. Science 79:79.

LiuD.TrumbleJ. T.. 2004. Tomato psyllid behavioral responses to tomato plant lines and interactions of plant lines with insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology97:10781085.

LiuD.TrumbleJ. T.. 2005. Interactions of plant resistance and insecticides on the development and survival of Bactericera cockerelli [Sulc] (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Crop Protection24:111117.

LiuD.TrumbleJ. T.. 2006. Ovipositional preferences, damage thresholds, and detection of the tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on selected tomato accessions. Bulletin of Entomolological Research96:197204.

LiuD. and TrumbleJ. T.. 2007. Comparative fitness of invasive and native populations of the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata123:3542.

LiuD.TrumbleJ. T.StouthamerR.. 2006a. Genetic differentiation between eastern populations and recent introductions of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) into western North America. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata118:177183.

LiuD.JohnsonL.TrumbleJ. T.. 2006b. Differential responses to feeding by the tomato/potato psyllid between two tomato cultivars and their implications in establishment of injury levels and potential of damaged plant recovery. Insect Science13:195204.

Lomeli-FloresJ. R.Bueno PartidaR.. 2002. New record of Tamarixia triozae (Burks), parasitoid of the tomato psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in Mexico. Folia Entomológica Mexicana41:375376.

McKenzieC. L.ShattersR. G.Jr.2009. First report of “Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous” associated with psyllid yellows of tomato in Colorado. Plant Disease93:1074.

MetzgerC. H.1936. Some preliminary notes on the effect of psyllid yellows on seed stock from infected plants. American Potato Journal13:277285.

MilesG. P.BuchmanJ. L.MunyanezaJ. E.. 2009. Impact of zebra chip disease on the mineral content of potato tubers. American Journal of Potato Research86:481489.

MilesG. P.SamuelM. A.ChenJ.CiveroloE. L.MunyanezaJ. E.. 2010. Evidence that cell death is associated with zebra chip disease in potato tubers. American Journal of Potato Research87:337349.

MorrisH. E.1939. Psyllid yellows in Montana in 1938. Plant Disease Report23:1819.

MunyanezaJ. E.2010. Psyllids as vectors of emerging bacterial diseases of annual crops. Southwestern Entomologist35:471477.

MunyanezaJ. E.GoolsbyJ. A.CrosslinJ. M.UptonJ. E.. 2007a. Further evidence that zebra chip potato disease in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas is associated with Bactericera cockerelli. Subtropical Plant Science59:3037.

MunyanezaJ. E.BuchmanJ. L.UptonJ. E.GoolsbyJ. A.CrosslinJ. M.BesterG.MilesG. P.SengodaV. G.. 2008. Impact of different potato psyllid populations on zebra chip disease incidence, severity, and potato yield. Subtrop. Plant Science60:2737.

MunyanezaJ. E.CrosslinJ. M.UptonJ. E.. 2007b. Association of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with “zebra chip,” a new potato disease in southwestern United States and Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology100:656663.

MunyanezaJ. E.CrosslinJ. M. and BuchmanJ. L.. 2009a. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in south central Washington. American Journal of Potato Research86: 513518.

MunyanezaJ. E.SengodaV. G.CrosslinJ. M.Garzon-TiznadoA.Cardenas-ValenzuelaO. G.. 2009b. First report of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” in pepper plants in Mexico. Plant Disease93:1076.

MunyanezaJ. E.SengodaV. G.CrosslinJ. M.Garzon-TiznadoA.Cardenas-ValenzuelaO. G.. 2009c. First report of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” in tomato plants in Mexico. Plant Disease93:1076.

MunyanezaJ. E.SengodaV. G.CrosslinJ. M.De la Rosa-LozanoG.SanchezA.. 2009d. First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ in potato tubers with zebra chip disease in Mexico. Plant Disease93:552.

NachappaP.LevyJ.PiersonE.TamborindeguyC.. 2011. Diversity of endosymbionts in the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), vector of zebra chip disease of potato. Current Microbiolology62:15101520.

NavarreD. A.ShakyaR.HoldenJ.CrosslinJ. M.. 2009. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds in tubers showing zebra chip symptoms. American Journal of Potato Research86:8895.

NelsonW. R.FisherT. W. and MunyanezaJ. E.. 2011. Haplotypes of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” suggest long-standing separation. European Journal of Plant Patholology130:512.

PackH. J.1930. Notes on miscellaneous insects of Utah. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin216. 32 pp.

PappR. P.JohnsonJ. B.. 1979. Origins of psyllid fallout in the Central Sierra Nevada of California (Homoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist55:9598.

PedigoL. P. and RiceM. E.. 2006. Entomology and Pest Management. 5th Edition. Pearson Prentice HallUpper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. 784 pp.

PengL.TrumbleJ. T.MunyanezaJ. E.LiuT.-X.. 2011. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), on tomato under laboratory and field conditions. Pest Managagement Science67:815824.

PletschD. J.1942. The effect of some insecticides on the immature stages of the potato and tomato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Journal of Economic Entomology35:5860.

PletschD. J.1947. The potato psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc), its biology and control. Montana Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin446. 95 pp.

RehmanM.MelgarJ.RiveraC.UrbinaN.IdrisA. M.BrownJ. K.. 2010. First report of “Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous” or “Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum” associated with severe foliar chlorosis, curling, and necrosis and tuber discoloration of potato plants in Honduras. Plant Disease94:376.

RichardsB. L.1928. A new and destructive disease of the potato in Utah and its relation to the potato psylla. Phytopathology18:140141.

RichardsB. L.1929. Psyllid yellows (cause undetermined). Plant Disease Report Supplement68:2830.

RichardsB. L.1931. Further studies with psyllid yellows of the potato. Phytopathology21:103.

RichardsB. L.BloodH. L.. 1933. Psyllid yellows of the potato. Journal of Agricultural Research46:189216.

RichardsB. L.BloodH. L.LinfordM. B.. 1927. Destructive outbreak of unknown potato disease in Utah. Plant Disease Report11:9394.

RomneyV. E.1939. Breeding areas of the tomato psyllid, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Journal of Economic Entomology32:150151.

RoweJ. A.KnowltonG. F.. 1935. Studies upon the morphology of Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). Proceedings of the Utah Acadademy of Science12:233239.

Sanchez-PenaS. R.Casas-De-HoyoE.Hernandez-ZulR.WallK. M.. 2007. A comparison of the activity of soil fungal isolates against three insect pests. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology24:4347.

SchaalL. A.1938. Some factors affecting the symptoms of the psyllid yellows disease of potatoes. American Potato Journal15:193206.

SecorG. A.Rivera-VarasV. V.. 2004. Emerging diseases of cultivated potato and their impact on Latin America. Revista Latinoamericana de la Papa (Supplement)1:118.

SecorG. A.RiveraV. V.AbadJ. A.LeeI.-M.CloverG. R. G.LieftingL. W.LiX. and De BoerS. H.. 2009. Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ with zebra chip disease of potato established by graft and psyllid transmission, electron microscopy, and PCR. Plant Disease93:574583.

SmithC. M.2005. Plant Resistance to Arthropods: Molecular and Conventional Approaches. Springer. Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 423 pp.

StarrG. H.1939. Psyllid yellows unusually severe in Wyoming. Plant Disease Report23:23.

StrandL. L.2006. Integrated Pest Management for Potatoes in the Western United States. University of CaliforniaOakland, California, USA. 167 pp.

SulcK.1909. Trioza cockerelli n.sp., a novelty from North America, being also of economic importance. Acta Societatis Entomologicae Bohemiae6:102108.

TateH. D.HillR. E.. 1944. Residual toxicity of sulfur to the potato psyllid in greenhouses. Journal of Economic Entomology37:57558.

TeulonD. A. J.WorkmanP. J.ThomasK. L.NielsenM.-C.. 2009. Bactericera cockerelli: incursion, dispersal and current distribution on vegetable crops in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection62:136144.

TuthillL. D.1945. Contributions to the knowledge of the Psyllidae of Mexico. Kansas Entomological Society18:129.

UC IPM Online. 2008. Potato psyllid. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r607300811.html. (Accessed 10/2011)

Van DriescheR.HoddleM.CenterT.. 2008. Control of Pests and Weeds by Natural Enemies: An Introduction to Biological Control. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oxford, UK. 473 pp.

Vega-GutierrezM. T.Rodriguez-MacielJ. C.Diaz-GomezO.Bujanos-MunizR.Mota-SanchezD.Martinez-CarrilloJ. L.Lagunes-TejedaA.Garzon-TiznadoJ. A.. 2008. Susceptibility to insecticides in two Mexican populations of tomato-potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Agrociencia42:463471.

WallisR. L.1946. Seasonal occurrence of the potato psyllid in the North Platte Valley. Journal of Economic Entomology39:689694.

WallisR. L.1948. Time of planting potatoes as a factor in prevention of potato psyllid attack. Journal of Economic Entomology41:45.

WallisR. L.1951. Potato psyllid selection of host plants. Journal of Economic Entomology44:815817.

WallisR. L.1955. Ecological studies on the potato psyllid as a pest of potatoes. USDA Technical Bulletin 1107. 25 pp.

WenA.MallikI.AlvaradoV. Y.PascheJ. S.WangX.LinH.ScholthofH. B.MirkovT. E.RushC. M.GudmestadN. C.. 2009. Detection, distribution, and genetic variability of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species associated with zebra complex disease of potato in North America. Plant Disease93:11021115.

WorkmanP. J.WhitemanS. A.. 2009. Importing Tamarixia triozae into containment in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection Society62:412.

YangX.-B.LiuT.-X.. 2009. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on eggplant and bell pepper. Environmental Entomolology38:16611667.

YangX.-B.ZhangY.-M.HuaL.LiuT.-X.. 2010a. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on potato under laboratory and field conditions in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Journal of Economic Entomology103:17291734.

YangX.-B.ZhangY.-M.HuaL.PengL.-N.MunyanezaJ. E.TrumbleJ. T.LiuT.-X.. 2010b. Repellency of selected biorational insecticides to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Crop Protection29:13201324.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Life stages of the potato psyllid. (A) eggs; ( B) nymphs; (C) red color morph of adult; (D) brown color morph. Picture credit: Michael Lewis.

  • View in gallery

    Damage associated with Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous in potatoes. (A) a healthy plant (left) and an infected plant exhibiting stunting and leaf scorching; (B) aerial tuber; (C) potato chips from a healthy tuber (left) and from an infected tuber (right). Picture Credit: Gregory Kund.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 46 46 23
Full Text Views 70 70 63
PDF Downloads 5 5 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0