Biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in amber forest communities based on analysis of syninclusions in Late Eocene Rovno amber

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Over 2,500 pieces of unselected Rovno amber (Late Eocene of Ukraine) are studied for their contents of syninclusia depending on amber piece weight class and taxonomic position of syninclusion components. Unlike previous publications (Perkovsky et al. 2010a, 2012), ceratopogonid components enter analysis separately (as genera or genus groups) rather than as entire taxon. This changes the resulting pattern drastically. Instead of two correlation pleiades, the air-plankton one (include biting midges), and the ‘Sciara zone’ dwellers, we have six pleiades now depending on developmental environments (terrestrial saprotrophs vs. aquatic) and adult behavior (low level fliers and tree trunk visitors vs. air plankton and others which show no preference to tree trunks). Causes of some differences are uncertain.

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References

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Figures

  • Correlation structure of studied fragment of the Priabonian (Late Eocene) arthropod assemblage of the Rovno amber based on composition of syninclusia. Double lines denote confident correlation (P < 0.1), simple line: non-confident correlation (P > 0.1), numbers at lines: ratio of actual and theoretical share (A:T) of syninclusia of respective groups. Dot lines denote anti-correlation (those with A:T < 1), those with small cross: confident ones (P < 0.1), with big cross: highly confident ones (P < 0.01). Thick ovals encircle higher correlated pleiades (A:T > 3.7), thin oval: less correlated one (A:T < 3.7). Not shown are weak correlations (A:T < 1.2) and anti-correlations (A:T>0.7), non-confident anti-correlations (P > 0.1), and any of them based on unique syninclusion.

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