Biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in amber forest communities based on analysis of syninclusions in Late Eocene Rovno amber

in Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


Over 2,500 pieces of unselected Rovno amber (Late Eocene of Ukraine) are studied for their contents of syninclusia depending on amber piece weight class and taxonomic position of syninclusion components. Unlike previous publications (Perkovsky et al. 2010a, 2012), ceratopogonid components enter analysis separately (as genera or genus groups) rather than as entire taxon. This changes the resulting pattern drastically. Instead of two correlation pleiades, the air-plankton one (include biting midges), and the ‘Sciara zone’ dwellers, we have six pleiades now depending on developmental environments (terrestrial saprotrophs vs. aquatic) and adult behavior (low level fliers and tree trunk visitors vs. air plankton and others which show no preference to tree trunks). Causes of some differences are uncertain.

Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews

Concise Review Articles on Insects, Spiders and their Relatives Living on Land



BergR. L. 1960. The ecological significance of correlation pleiades. Evolution 14:171180.

BorkentA. 2000. Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae: Diptera) from Lower Cretaceous Lebanese amber with a discussion of the diversity and patterns found in other ambers. pp. 355451. In, GrimaldiD..(Editor). Studies on fossils in amber, with particular reference to the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 498 pp.

BorkentA. and PicadoA.. 2008. A revision of the Neotropical genus Cacaohelea Wirth & Grogan (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Russian Entomological Journal 17:2536.

BorkentA. and SpinelliG. R.. 2007. Neotropical Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Insecta). In, AdisJ., AriasJ. R., Rueda-DelgadoG., and WnatzenK. M., (Editors). Aquatic Biodiversity in Latin America (ABLA). Volume 4. Pensoft, Sofia, Bulgaria. 198 pp.

DinwiddieA. and RachootinS.. 2011. Patterning of a compound eye on an extinct dipteran wing. Biology letters 7:281284.

DownesJ. A. 1978. Feeding and mating in the insectivorous Ceratopogoninae (Diptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada. 104. 62 pp.

GroganW. L. and WirthW.W.. 1979. A new Neotropical genus of predaceous midges, with a key to the genera of Heteromyiini (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 81:5159.

HaganD.V., HassoldE., KyndeB., SzadziewskiR., ThunesK. H., SkartveitJ., and GroganW. L.Jr. 2000. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from forest habitats in Norway. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69:465476.

KovalevV.G. 1966. On the fauna and ecology of predacious Diptera of the subfamily Tachydromiinae (Diptera, Empididae) in the central European belt of the USSR. Entomological Review 45:436438.

PerkovskyE. E. 2006. Occurrence of ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and aphid (Homoptera, Aphidinea) syninclusions in Saxonian and Rovno Ambers. Paleontological Journal 40:190192.

PerkovskyE. E. 2007a. Syninclusions of ants Lasius schiefferdeckeri (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and aphids Germaraphis (Homoptera, Aphidinea) in Rovno and Saxonian Ambers. Vestnik Zoologii 41:181185.

PerkovskyE. E. 2007b. First occurrence of syninclusion of ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and matsucoccid (Homoptera, Matsucoccidae) in Rovno Amber. Russian Entomological Journal 15:419420.

PerkovskyE. E. 2008. First occurrence of syninclusion of ants Lasius schiefferdeckeri Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and aphids Germaraphis ungulata Heie (Homoptera, Aphidinea) in Amber (Klesov). Russian Entomological Journal 17:207208.

PerkovskyE. E. 2009. Differences in ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) species composition between weight fractions of Rovno Amber. Paleontological Journal 43:10871091.

PerkovskyE. E. 2010. Participation of Germaraphis Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidinea) in weight fractions of the Rovno Amber and their syninclusions with ants. Vestnik Zoologii 44:5562.

PerkovskyE. E. 2011. Syninclusions of the Eocene winter ant Prenolepis henshei (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Germaraphis aphids (Hemiptera: Eriosomatidae) in Late Eocene Baltic and Rovno amber: some implications. Russian Entomological Journal 20:303313.

PerkovskyE. E. 2013. Eohelea sinuosa (Meunier, 1904) (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in Late Eocene ambers of Europe. Paleontological Journal 47 (4), in press.

PerkovskyE. E., RasnitsynA. P., VlaskinA. P., and TaraschukM. V.. 2007. A comparative analysis of the Baltic and Rovno amber arthropod faunas: representative samples. African Invertebrates 48:229245.

PerkovskyE. E., RasnitsynA. P., VlaskinA. P., and RasnitsynS. P.. 2010a. Community structure in the amber forest as revealed by the study of the arthropod syninclusia in the Rovno Amber (Late Eocene of Ukraine). Acta Geologica Sinica 84:954958.

PerkovskyE. E., ZosimovichV. Yu, and VlaskinA. P.. 2010b. Rovno Amber. pp. 116136. In, PenneyD. (Editor). Biodiversity of fossils in amber from the major world deposits.Siri Scientific Press. Manchester, United Kingdom. 304 pp.

PerkovskyE. E., RasnitsynA. P., VlaskinA. P., and RasnitsynS. P.. 2012. Contribution to the study of the structure of amber forest communities based on analysis of syninclusions in the Rovno Amber (Late Eocene of Ukraine). Paleontological Journal 46:293301.

SontagE., and SzadziewskiR.. 2011. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Eocene Baltic amber from the Rovno region (Ukraine). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 80:779800.

Statistica 6.0. 2012. (accessed 13 June 2012).

SzadziewskiR. 1988. Biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) from Baltic amber. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 58:3283.

SzadziewskiR. 1993. Biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) from Miocene Saxonian amber. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 35:603656.

ZelentsovN. I, BaranovV. A., PerkovskyE. E., and ShobanovN. A.. 2012. First records on non–biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Rovno amber. Russian Entomological Journal 21:7987.


  • Correlation structure of studied fragment of the Priabonian (Late Eocene) arthropod assemblage of the Rovno amber based on composition of syninclusia. Double lines denote confident correlation (P < 0.1), simple line: non-confident correlation (P > 0.1), numbers at lines: ratio of actual and theoretical share (A:T) of syninclusia of respective groups. Dot lines denote anti-correlation (those with A:T < 1), those with small cross: confident ones (P < 0.1), with big cross: highly confident ones (P < 0.01). Thick ovals encircle higher correlated pleiades (A:T > 3.7), thin oval: less correlated one (A:T < 3.7). Not shown are weak correlations (A:T < 1.2) and anti-correlations (A:T>0.7), non-confident anti-correlations (P > 0.1), and any of them based on unique syninclusion.

    View in gallery


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2 2 1
Full Text Views 3 3 3
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0