The values of filial piety have strongly influenced the care of older people in traditional Chinese societies. Changes in family structure and relationships have occurred and in recent decades, transnational migration has become a factor in how filial piety is perceived and practiced in contemporary translocal Chinese families. Through the use of in-depth interviews, this pilot study explores transnational family patterns, elder care practices, attitudes towards filial piety, and opinions of the medical systems in Taiwan and Australia among 14 Taiwanese families who have lived in Australia for over 20 years. The study finds that despite immigration, filial piety remains an important value for these families. Most participants have/had provided care to their aged parents at the site of immigration and back home, and some of these parents were immigrants who had returned to Taiwan in their old age. Participants generally felt that older people are better looked after in Taiwan than in Australia, as Taiwan has a better healthcare system, and hired caregivers are more readily available. Elders’ expectations of filial piety from their children varied among participants, but all were prepared for a weakening of filiality and ongoing changes in intergenerational relations while living in a Western country.
傳統中國社會的老人照顧，受到孝道價值觀的影響很深。因為家庭結構及成員關係的改變，特別是近三十年來移民國外人口的增加，對當代華人家庭對孝道的認知與實踐產生了新的影響。本研究透過深入訪談居住澳洲二十年以上的台灣移民，探索跨國家庭類型、照顧年長父母的方式、對孝道的看法，以及台灣及澳洲兩地醫療體系的差異。研究發現雖然移民海外，盡孝道仍是重要的家庭價值。大部分的受訪者都曾為長者提供資源或參與照顧，無論是在澳洲或在台灣。年長父母也曾經在成年子女居住澳洲期間前往探視、短期逗留或移民。他們大部分都已回流台灣，原因是在台灣的年長者會得到較好的照顧，台灣的健保制度較適合年長者的需要，而且可以僱用外傭幫忙。已定居澳洲的台灣移民，對孝道的看法雖有差異，但對自己的成年子女是否能在環境不同的西方國家盡孝道，均有所保留。 (This article is in English.)
ChiangL. H. N. (2006) “
Immigrant Taiwanese women in the process of adapting to life in Australia: Case studies from transnational households,” in IpD., HibbinsR. and ChuiW. H. (Eds.) Experiences of Transnational Chinese Migrants in the Asia-Pacific. New York: Nova Publishers.
HendersonA. (2003) “
Untapped talents: Employment and settlement experiences of skilled Chinese in New Zealand.” In IpM. (Ed.) Unfolding History, Evolving Identity: The Chinese in New Zealand, pp. 141–164. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
HoE. S. (2003) “
Reluctant exiles or roaming transnationals? The Hong Kong Chinese in New Zealand.” In IpM. (Ed.) Unfolding History, Evolving Identity: The Chinese in New Zealand, pp. 165–184. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
HoE. S. and FarmerR. (1994) “
The Hong Kong Chinese in Auckland.” In SkeldonR. (Ed.) Reluctant Exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the New Overseas Chinese. 215–232. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
HoE., LewinJ. and IpQ. (2011) “
On the move: Subsequent migration trajectories of Hong Kong Chinese families to New Zealand.” In IpM. (Ed.) Transmigration and the New Chinese: Theories and Practices from the New Zealand Experience. 138–162. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong.
HsuJ. (1972) “
Chinese parent-child relationships as revealed in popular stories for children.” In Y. Y. Li & K. S. Yang (Eds.), Symposium on The Character of the Chinese: an Interdisciplinary Approach. 127–174. Taipei: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, Monograph Series B, 1972, No. 4, (In Chinese).
LiW. W., HodgettsD., HoE. and StolteO. (2010) “
From early Confucian texts to aged care in China and abroad today: The evolution of filial piety and its implications.” Journal of us-China Public Administration, 7(7): 48–59.
LiuJ. H., NgS. H., WeatherallA. and LoongC. (2003) “
Cultural stereotypes and social representations of elders from Chinese and European perspectives.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 18: 149–168.
LiuL. S. (2011) “
New Zealand case study of prc transnational migration: Returnees and trans-Tasman migrants.” In M. Ip (Ed.) Transmigration and the New Chinese. Theories and Practices from the New Zealand Experience, 57–101. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong.
NgA. C. Y., PhillipsD. R., and LeeW. K. (2002) “
Persistence and challenges to filial piety and informal support of older persons in a modern Chinese society: A case study in Tuen Mun, Hong Kong.” Journal of Aging Studies, 16(2): 135–153.
TamM. (2003) “
Empowering mobility: ‘Astronaut’ women in Australia,” In LeeE. W. Y. (ed) Gender and Change in Hong Kong: Globalization, Post-Colonialism and Chinese Patriarchy. 177–199. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
TrejosB. and ChiangL. H. N. (2012) “
Young Taiwanese immigration to Argentina: The challenges of adaptation, self-identity and returning.” International Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies (ijaps), 8(2): 113–143.
Tell me about…: Using interviews as a research methodology.” In R. Flowerdew & D. Martin (Eds.) Methods in human Geography: A guide for students doing a research project (2nd ed.). London: Longman, 2005.
WildingR. and BaldassarL. (2009) “
Transnational family-work balance: Experiences of Australian migrants caring for ageing parents and young children across distance and borders.” Journal of Family Studies, 15(2): 177–187.
WongA. S. K. and HoE. S. (2012) “
Transnational childcare among Chinese families in New Zealand.” Paper presented at the Social Environment, Migration and Health: Proceedings of the Fifth International Asian and Ethnic Minority Health and Wellbeing Conference, June 27–28. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland.
YangM. C. (1972) “
Familism and Chinese national character.” In LiY. Y. & YangK. S. (Eds.), Symposium on The Character of the Chinese: An Interdisciplinary Approach, No. 4, 127–174. Taipei: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, Monograph Series B, 1972. (In Chinese).