This essay focuses on Lee Teng Hwee and Ho Pao Jin, two “trans-local” activist educational reformers, in order to explore the interaction between changing social networks, governments, and educational reform movements in Shanghai, Singapore, and Malacca at critical moments between the 1880s and 1930s. Lee, as Fudan University President, and Ho, as Shanghai Student Union President, were key actors in the 1919 protest movement. Both were sons of families engaged in trans-regional trade, Lee moving from Batavia to Singapore, America, and Shanghai and Ho moving from Xiamen to Singapore, Shanghai, America, and Malacca. My purpose is to show how the shifting socio-economic networks and political structures and the activities of these educational reformers influenced each other, drawing on and contributing to local and trans-local experience. As these contributors were flexible in adapting to circumstances as they pursued their goals, we should also be flexible in our analysis of them.
本文聚焦在李登輝、何葆仁這兩位「跨越地域」（trans-local）的行動派教育改革者，從而探討在一八八零年代到一九三零年代的關鍵時刻，發生在麻六甲、新加坡和上海各地社會網絡、政府和教育改革運動之間的交流。兩位在一九一九年抗議運動時皆是活躍份子：李氏當時是復旦大學的校長，而何氏則是上海學生會的主席。兩人亦皆出身於從事跨區域貿易的商人家庭：李氏自巴達維亞移居到新加坡、美國和上海；而何氏則自廈門移往新加坡、美國和麻六甲。我的目的是要突顯出變動的社會經濟網絡、政治結構和這些教育改革者的活動之間彼此的影響，特別是一地的經驗如何在另一地被承續。由於這些貢獻者是探取相當彈性的方式在追求其目標，會因不同的情境而做出調整，我們對他們的活動之分析也應是彈性的。 (This article is in English).
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