Transformation of a New Chinese Immigrant Community in the United States: A Case Study in Flushing, New York (美國新華人移民社區的轉型—以紐約法拉盛為探討中心)

in Translocal Chinese: East Asian Perspectives
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Early Chinese immigrants in America centered on the Chinatown, which had fixed blocks and scope of activities. The distinguishing features of its ethnic culture and economy were formed by the ethnic Chinese immigrants who dwelt there. The Chinatown has become identified with the early Chinese immigrants and become one of the most unique residential areas for any ethnic group. Ever since the 1965 amendments to the American Immigration and Nationality Act, however, new Chinese arrivals no longer inhabit Chinatowns after they reach the United States. Without stationary blocks and scopes of activities, new Chinese immigrant communities have become enclaves accommodating multiple ethnic groups instead of one particular ethnicity. These communities are closely connected to a variety of ethnic features and have a tremendously different appearance from that of Chinatown. This transformation is still in progress and has been widely-considered by many scholars researching overseas ethnic Chinese immigrants. Flushing, in New York, is the largest Chinese immigrant community in the twenty-first century. This essay takes it as a case study to look into the evolution of Chinese immigrant communities in the United States.

早期美國華人移民以唐人街為中心,它有固定的街區,一定的活動範圍。老移民住在這個範圍內,形成它鮮明的族裔文化和經濟特色,贏得了早期華人移民的認同,成為美國最具特色的族裔聚居區之一。自1965年新移民法修改後,新移民移入美國,不再以唐人街為居住區域,新華人移民社區無固定的街區,無固定的活動範圍,無單一的族裔聚集區,甚或是多族裔聚集的區域,靠著族裔特色融匯在一起,與過去的唐人街特色迥異,這種改變正在持續中,也是現今研究海外華人的學者關注的課題。本文欲藉由21世紀全球最大的華人移民社區—紐約的法拉盛(Flushing) 為例,探討美國華人移民社區的演變。 (This article is in English).

Transformation of a New Chinese Immigrant Community in the United States: A Case Study in Flushing, New York (美國新華人移民社區的轉型—以紐約法拉盛為探討中心)

in Translocal Chinese: East Asian Perspectives

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2

Chin-yu Chen“The Chinese Immigration Life and Community Institutions in San Francisco’s Chinatown, 1850–1882,” Journal of the College of Liberal Arts 23 (March 1993): 107–125; see also Min Zhou Chinatown: The Socioeconomic Potential of an Urban Enclave 41–68.

5

Chin-yu Chen“A Century of Chinese Discrimination and Exclusion in the United States, 1850–1965,” Chung-Hsing Journal of History 3 (April 1993): 187–215; see also John ­Kuo-wei Tchen “New York Chinese: The Nineteenth-Century Pre-Chinatown Settlement” Chinese America: History and Perspectives 1990 (San Francisco ca: Chinese Historical ­Society of America 1990) 160–161.

8

Chin-Yu Chen“A Century of Chinese Discrimination and Exclusion in the United States 1850–1965” 187–215; see also Loïc J.D. Wacquant and William J. Wilson “The Cost of Racial and Class Exclusion in the Inner City” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 501 (1989): 8–25.

10

Chin-yu Chen“A Century of Chinese Discrimination and Exclusion in the United States 1850–1965” 187–215.

11

Chin-yu Chen“A Century of Chinese Discrimination and Exclusion in the United States 1850–1965” 206; Betty Lee Sung The Story of the Chinese in America (New York ny: Collier Books 1967) 76–77; see also Stuart Creighton Miller The Unwelcome Immigrants: The American Image of the Chinese 1785–1882 112.

12

Chin-yu Chen“A Century of Chinese Discrimination and Exclusion in the United States 1850–1965” 187–215.

13

John Kifner“Immigrant Waves from Asia Bring an Underworld Ashore,” New York Times January 6 1991 1.

21

Chin-Yu Chen“The Chinese Immigration Life and Community Institutions in San Francisco’s Chinatown,” Journal of the College of Liberal Arts 23 (March 1993): 107–125.

22

Min Zhou and Minggang Lin“The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

23

Jan LinReconstructing Chinatown: Ethnic Enclave Global Change147–150.

24

Min Zhou and Minggang Lin“The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

26

Huping LingChinese St. Louis: From Enclave to Cultural Community36–37; see also Min Zhou and Minggang Lin “The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

27

Hsiang-shui ChenChinatown No More: Taiwan Immigrants in Contemporary New York36–45.

29

Henry D. WallerHistory of the Town Flushing Long Island New York84–97.

31

Henry D. WallerHistory of the Town Flushing Long Island New York172–183; see also Min Zhou and Minggang Lin “The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

32

Min Zhou and Minggang Lin“The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

33

Hsiang-shui ChenChinatown No More: Taiwan Immigrants in Contemporary New Yorkix.

34

Min Zhou and Minggang Lin“The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–116.

35

Da-wei Long“From Fringe to Mainstream: New Immigrants and Chinese Economies in North America,” Overseas Chinese History StudiesNo. 2 (June 2011): 1–8.

36

Min Zhou and Minggang Lin“The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120; see also Min Zhou “On Ethnic Capital: A Comparative Analysis of Chinatown and Chinese Ethnoburb in the United States” 217–244.

41

Min Zhou and Minggang Lin“The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

42

Da-wei Long“From Fringe to Mainstream: New Immigrants and Chinese Economies in North America” 1–8; u.s. Census Bureau 1960–2010 of Census of Population 1962–2012; Min Zhou and Minggang Lin “The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120; see also Hsiang-shui Chen Chinatown No More: Taiwan Immigrants in Contemporary New York 4.

43

Hsiang-shui ChenChinatown No More: Taiwan Immigrants in Contemporary New York21–26.

44

Hsiang-shui ChenChinatown No More: Taiwan Immigrants in Contemporary New York21–26; see also http://140.109.8.58/sinorama/content/ChEnIm.asp?chptnumber=150608 2017/03/20.

45

Min Zhou and Minggang Lin“The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

46

Min ZhouChinatown: The Socioeconomic Potential of an Urban Enclavexvii; and Min Zhou The Transformation of Chinese America: A Collection of Essays (Shanghai: San Lian Publishing Co. 2006) 318–341.

48

Chin-yu Chen“Social Structure Adaptability and Identity of Taiwanese American Immigrants 1980–2000” 28–37.

49

Jan LinReconstructing Chinatown: Ethnic Enclave Global Change189–206; see also Min Zhou and Minggang Lin “The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

50

Min Zhou and Minggang Lin“The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

51

Min ZhouChinatown: The Socioeconomic Potential of an Urban Enclave77–79; Min Zhou and Minggang Lin “The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

52

Mae M. Ngai“Transnationalism and the Transformation of the ‘Other’,” American ­Quarterly 57 1 (March 2005): 59–65.

56

Philip Q. Yang“From Sojourning to Settlement to Transnationalism: Transformation of the Chinese Immigrant Community in America,” in Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora ed. Tan Chee-Beng (London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group2012) 122–140; see also Jan Lin Reconstructing Chinatown: Ethnic Enclave Global Change xi; and Min Zhou and Minggang Lin “The Transformation of Chinatown in the United States” 115–120.

57

Chin-yu Chen“A Century of Chinese Discrimination and Exclusion in the United States, 1850–1965,” Chung-Hsing Journal of History 3 (1993): 187–215; see also Chin-yu Chen Manhattan Chinatown in New York City (Taipei: Dau Shan Published 2000) 78–90.

58

Min Zhou and John R. Logan“Return on Human Capital in Ethnic Enclaves: New York City’s Chinatown,” American Sociological Review 54 (1989): 793–830.

59

Mae M. Ngai“Transnationalism and the Transformation of the ‘Other’,” American Quarterly 57 1 (March 2005): 59–65.

60

Da-wei Long“From Fringe to Mainstream: New Immigrants and Chinese Economies in North America” 1–8.

61

Him Mark LaiBecoming American: A History of Communities and Institutions372–375; Min Zhou “On Ethnic Capital: A Comparative Analysis of Chinatown and Chinese Ethnoburb in the United States” 217–244.

62

Huping LingChinese St. Louis: From Enclave to Cultural Community 145–170.

63

Min ZhouChinatown: The Socioeconomic Potential of an Urban Enclave155–57; and Huping Ling Chinese St. Louis: From Enclave to Cultural Community 112–130.

64

Mae M. Ngai“Transnationalism and the Transformation of the ‘Other’” 59–65.

65

Hsiang-shui ChenChinatown No More: Taiwan Immigrants in Contemporary New York145–160.

66

Huping LingChinese St. Louis: From Enclave to Cultural Community122–130.

68

Min ZhouChinatown: The Socioeconomic Potential of an Urban Enclave185–218.

69

Min Zhou and John R. Logan“Return on Human Capital in Ethnic Enclaves: New York City’s Chinatown” 793–830.

70

Min ZhouChinatown: The Socioeconomic Potential of an Urban Enclave185–218.

71

Min ZhouChinatown: The Socioeconomic Potential of an Urban Enclave41–68.

72

Huping LingChinese St. Louis: From Enclave to Cultural Community122–130.

73

Huping LingChinese St. Louis: From Enclave to Cultural Community17–185.

74

Jan LinReconstructing Chinatown: Ethnic Enclave Global Change230–238.

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