The Province of Syria and the Mutasarrifiyya of Mount Lebanon (1866-1880)

in Turkish Historical Review
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The establishment of the autonomous Mutasarrifiyya of Mount Lebanon in 1861 introduced a major factor into the political life of Syria. The Porte under Ali and Fuad Paşas responded to the challenge that the Mutasarrifiyya posed by uniting the two provinces of Damascus and Saida into one. Appointed governor general Mehmed Rashid Paşa aimed to bring the province and the Mutasarrifiyya closer. Rashid stimulated the “Nahda” and helped to promote the concept of Syria as a fatherland. After the death of Ali Paşa in 1871 Rashid was recalled and the behaviour of the new governors general resulted in disaffection and agitation for joining the Mutasarrifiyya or having a similar status, as is clear in the placards of 1880. Antonius regarded these placards as evidence of the rise of Arab nationalism. Actually, they were no more than agitation against mal-administration and a wish to join the Mountain.

The Province of Syria and the Mutasarrifiyya of Mount Lebanon (1866-1880)

in Turkish Historical Review

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References

2

RustumLubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya p. 35; Akarlı Engin Deniz The Long Peace Ottoman Lebanon 1861-1920 ( London: Tauris 1993) pp. 31-3.

3

RustumLubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya pp. 82-6.

4

Khatir‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifeen fi Lubnan p. 15.

5

Khatir‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifeen fi Lubnan pp. 15 131; Spagnolo France and Ottoman Lebanon p. 113.

6

RustumLubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya p. 237.

7

Khatir‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifeen fi Lubnan pp. 14-15.

8

Khatir‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifeen fi Lubnan p. 131.

9

AkarlıThe Long Peace pp. 82-3 103-4 133-47.

10

Khatir‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifeen fi Lubnan p. 23; Hitti Philip K. Lebanon in History (London: Macmillan 1957 3rd. ed.) pp. 447-8; cf. Jessup H.H. Fifty-Three Years in Syria 2 vols. (New York: Fleming H. Revell company 1910) vol. I pp. 211-12.

11

Jouplain M.La question de Liban pp. 544-5 as quoted in Salibi Kamal S. The Modern History of Lebanon (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson 1965) p. 118; Khatir ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifeen fi Lubnan p. 27.

12

SpagnoloFrance and Ottoman Lebanon pp. 113-14; Akarlı The Long Peace p. 39.

13

RustumLubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya p. 85; Khatir ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifeen fi Lubnan p. 34; Butrus al-Bustani Da’irat al-Ma’arif vol.VII p. 577.

18

RustumLubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya p. 85; see above note 13.

22

 On Khalil Khuri see Ayalon AmiThe Press in the Arab Middle East. A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press1995) pp. 31-4; Zachs The Making of a Syrian identity pp. 228-9.

23

 See my article“The Christians between Ottomanism and Syrian nationalism: the ideas of Butrus al-Bustani”International Journal of Middle East Studies11 (1980) 287-304.

26

Antonius GeorgeThe Arab Awakening (London: Hamish Hamilton1938) pp. 53-4; Tibawi Abdullatif A Modern History of Syria including Lebanon and Palestine (London: Macmillan 1969) pp. 160-1.

30

Abu-Manneh“The Christians between Ottomanism and Syrian nationalism: the ideas of Butrus al-Bustani” p. 296 and note 79.

31

 See RustumLubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya p. 288; and Abu-Manneh “The Christians between Ottomanism and Syrian nationalism: the ideas of Butrus al-Bustani” p. 295.

32

RustumLubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya p. 89.

33

 See my article“The Sultan and the bureaucracy: the anti-Tanzimat concepts of grand vizier Mahmud Nedim Pasha”International Journal of Middle East Studies21 (1990) 257-74. Nedim served as vali of the province of Saida (the seat of which was Beirut) and Damascus in the years February 1855 to December 1855 in Beirut and then until September 1856 in Damascus. See İnal İbnülemin Mahmut Kemal Son Sadrazamlar (Istanbul: Maarif Vekalei 1940) vol. I p. 260.

46

TNA FO 1369Dickson to Dufferin dispatch 46 5 October 1881.

47

AntoniusThe Arab Awakening p. 60; see also Rustum Lubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya pp. 248-53 where further details are given.

48

AntoniusThe Arab Awakening p. 60.

55

RustumLubnan fi ‘Ahd al-Mutasarrifiyya pp. 248-53.

56

ZeineThe Emergence of Arab Nationalism p. 60 n. 1.

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