Two Concepts of State in the Tanzimat Period: the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane and the Hatt-ı Hümayun

in Turkish Historical Review
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This article suggests dividing the Tanzimat period into two phases each run by a different elite. Phase one extended from 1839 to 1854 and phase two between 1855 and 1871 after which the Sublime Porte entered a few years of instability. The traditional ruling class left over from the period of Sultan Mahmud Ii controlled the state after him. Its major contribution was the promulgation of the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane, the aim of which was to end absolute rule and restore justice in the government system. However failing to check the drift into the Crimean War this traditional ruling class lost power in favour of a new ruling elite whose members belonged to a lower-middle or lower classes, and who as such represented social mobility within Ottoman Turkish society.

Two Concepts of State in the Tanzimat Period: the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane and the Hatt-ı Hümayun

in Turkish Historical Review

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References

12

Abu-MannehStudies pp. 68–9.

13

Mardin ŞerifThe Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought (Princeton: Princeton University Press1962) p. 133 and note 1.

30

Heyd Uriel“The Ottoman ‘Ulema and westernization in the time of Selim III and Mahmud II”Studies in Islamic History and Civilizationed. Uriel Heyd (Jerusalem: Magnes Press Hebrew University 1961) p. 78; Ahmed Lutfi Tarih-i Lutfi V p. 94.

36

Hurewitz Jacob C.The Middle East and Africa in World Politics: a Documentary Record (New Haven: Yale University Press1975) vol. I p. 269.

38

DavisonReform in the Ottoman Empire p. 40.

50

HanioğluA Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire pp. 60–3.

53

FindleyOttoman Civil Officialdom pp. 133–4 and 263–4; Somel Selcuk Akşin The Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire 18391908. Islamization Autocracy and Discipline (Leiden: Brill2001) p. 21; Bosworth C.E. “Tarjuman” in 2 X p. 23; see Akyıldız Tanzimat Dönemi Osmanlı Merkez Teşkilatında Reform pp. 72–78; Ahmed Lutfi Tarih-i Lutfi IV p. 99.

55

SomelThe Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire pp. 16 34–5 52 ff. and for textbooks for teaching the beginnings of religious learning and Qur’an schools pp. 58–60 and notes 114–6; Findley Ottoman Civil Officialdom p. 134.

60

SomelThe Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire p. 19 and footnote 5. These booklets had seen numerous reprints in the nineteenth century see Özege M. Seyfettin Eski Harflerle Basılmış Türkçe Eserleri Kataloğu5 vols. see vol. I pp. 311–2. For other textbooks see footnote 55 above.

62

Abdurrahman ŞerefTarih Musahabeleri pp. 83–4.

63

Abdurrahman ŞerefTarih Musahabeleri p. 65; cf. Ahmed Lutfi Tarih-i Lutfi III pp. 163–4.

64

Abdurrahman ŞerefTarih Musahabeleri p. 85.

66

DavisonReform in the Ottoman Empire pp. 53–6; Ahmed Refik “Türkiye’de Islahat Fermanı” Türk Tarih Encümeni Mecmuası 4/81 (1340). pp. 193–200.

68

Lambton Ann K.S.State and Government in Medieval Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press1981) pp. 13 ff. 122; Kurdi Abdulrahman A. The Islamic State: a Study Based on the Islamic Holy Constitution (London: Mansell 1984) pp. 41–50.

69

DavisonReform in the Ottoman Empire pp. 59–60.

70

DavisonReform in the Ottoman Empire p. 4.

71

DavisonReform in the Ottoman Empire p. 4.

72

DavisonReform in the Ottoman Empire p. 55.

73

Abu-MannehStudies pp. 126–7; İğdemir Uluğ Küleli Vak’ası Hakkında bir Araştırma (Ankara: n.p. 1937).

75

 cf. LambtonState and Government in Medieval Islam pp. 206–8.

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