This article suggests dividing the Tanzimat period into two phases each run by a different elite. Phase one extended from 1839 to 1854 and phase two between 1855 and 1871 after which the Sublime Porte entered a few years of instability. The traditional ruling class left over from the period of Sultan Mahmud Ii controlled the state after him. Its major contribution was the promulgation of the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane, the aim of which was to end absolute rule and restore justice in the government system. However failing to check the drift into the Crimean War this traditional ruling class lost power in favour of a new ruling elite whose members belonged to a lower-middle or lower classes, and who as such represented social mobility within Ottoman Turkish society.
Heyd Uriel“The Ottoman ‘Ulema and westernization in the time of Selim III and Mahmud II”Studies in Islamic History and Civilizationed. Uriel Heyd (Jerusalem: Magnes Press Hebrew University 1961) p. 78; Ahmed Lutfi Tarih-i Lutfi V p. 94.
FindleyOttoman Civil Officialdom pp. 133–4and 263–4; Somel Selcuk Akşin The Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire 1839–1908. Islamization Autocracy and Discipline (Leiden: Brill2001) p. 21; Bosworth C.E. “Tarjuman” in eı2 X p. 23; see Akyıldız Tanzimat Dönemi Osmanlı Merkez Teşkilatında Reform pp. 72–78; Ahmed Lutfi Tarih-i Lutfi IV p. 99.
SomelThe Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire pp. 16 34–5 52ff. and for textbooks for teaching the beginnings of religious learning and Qur’an schools pp. 58–60 and notes 114–6; Findley Ottoman Civil Officialdom p. 134.
SomelThe Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire p. 19and footnote 5. These booklets had seen numerous reprints in the nineteenth century see Özege M. Seyfettin Eski Harflerle Basılmış Türkçe Eserleri Kataloğu5 vols. see vol. I pp. 311–2. For other textbooks see footnote 55 above.
Lambton Ann K.S.State and Government in Medieval Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press1981) pp. 13 ff. 122; Kurdi Abdulrahman A. The Islamic State: a Study Based on the Islamic Holy Constitution (London: Mansell 1984) pp. 41–50.