How Turks and Persians Drank Coffee: A Little-known Document of Social History by Father J. T. Krusiński

in Turkish Historical Review
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Polish orientalist, Jesuit Jan Tadeusz Krusiński is the author of some of the most important chronicles that were the source material for the study of the history of late Safavid Iran. In addition to these works, translated into several languages, Krusiński also wrote a less known text on methods of consuming coffee in the Ottoman empire and Persia. This article contains a presentation and translation of the text, as well as a draft of the author’s biography.

How Turks and Persians Drank Coffee: A Little-known Document of Social History by Father J. T. Krusiński

in Turkish Historical Review

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References

1

Hattox Ralph S.Coffee and Coffeehouses: The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press1985) pp. 11–26; İbrahim Peçevi Tarih-i Peçevi vol. i (Istanbul 1281–1283) p. 363; Matthee Rudi “Coffee in Safavid Iran” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 37/1 (1994) p. 5; Matthee Rudi “Exotic substances: the introduction and global spread of tobacco coffee cocoa tea and distilled liquor sixteenth to eighteenth centuries” Drugs and Narcotics in History ed. Roy Porter and Mikuláš Teich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995) p. 27; Drenjaković N. Београд [Belgrade] (Belgrade: Turistički savez Beograda 1967) p. 46; Fotić Aleksandar “The introduction of coffee and tobacco to the mid-west Balkans” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 64/ 1 (2011) p. 90 Kreševljaković Hamdija Esnafi i obrti u starom Sarajevu [Guilds and crafts in Old Sarajevo] (Sarajevo: Narodna Prosvjeta 1958) p. 207; Spaho Fehim “Prve kafane su otvorene u našim krajevima” [The first coffee shops were opened in our region] Novi Behar 5 (1931) pp. 41–2.

20

Rycaut Sir PaulThe History of the Present State of the Ottoman Empire (London: C. Brome1686). ‘Dr Montpellier’ was most probably Daniel Duncan who practiced in the city of Montpellier. For his treatise Duncan Avis salutaire a tout le monde contre l’abus des choses chaudes.

24

RambaldiAmbrosia arabica pp. 19–23; Contrary to Krusiński this author dedicated some attention to the matter of selection of the proper coffee beans mentioning also vessels used to prepare it. Unlike our Jesuit Rambaldi could not decide on the dosage of this beverage which would be the best to consume while citing the opinions of earlier authorities on this subject. See Rambaldi Ambrosia arabica pp. 19–21. See also Dufour Traitez nouveaux et curieux du Café du Thé et du Chocolate p. 46; Anon Virtu del café bevanda introdotta nuovamente nell’ Italia p. 22.

25

RambaldiAmbrosia arabica pp. 16 50 52; Matthee “Coffee in Safavid Iran” pp. 17–18; Shefer-Mossensohn Miri Ottoman Medicine: Healing and Medical Institutions 1500–1700 (Albany: suny Press 2010) p. 87.

27

Abrahamowicz Zygmunt“Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki” in Polski Słownik Biograficzny (Wrocław; Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich) 16 (1970) p. 128; See also Anon Virtu del café bevanda introdotta nuovamente nell’ Italia p. 21; Rambaldi Ambrosia arabica p. 52.

30

ChamberlayneThe Natural History of Coffee Thee Chocolate Tobacco p. 5; Rambaldi Ambrosia arabica p. 68.

31

 See HattoxCoffee and Coffeehouses p. 67.

32

HattoxCoffee and Coffeehouses p. 83. According to other authorities in Ottoman lands coffee was sweetened. See Lewis Geoffrey L. (transl.) The Balance of Truth by Kâtip Çelebi (London: George Allen 1957) p. 62 Anon A Broadside against Coffee p. 22.

33

Matthee“Exotic substances” p. 160.

34

DufourTraitez nouveaux et curieux du Café du Thé et du Chocolate pp. 33–35; Galland De l’origine et du progrès du café p. 40.

37

 See RambaldiAmbrosia arabica p. 24.

41

RycautThe History of the Present State of the Ottoman Empire p. 292.

42

LewisThe Balance of Truth by Kâtip Çelebi p. 62.

46

GallandDe l’origine et du progrès du café p. 47.

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