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in Tilburg Law Review


1 Updated versions of the constitutions are available in English at the website "Consolidating European Public Law", EUI, Florence, 2 Lithuania and Estonia adopted new constitutions in 1992. Latvia re-instated its 1922 constitution in order to symbolically mark the continuity of its statehood; the constitution has subsequently been amended several times.

3 See in more detail Albi A., Post-modern versus Retrospective Sovereignty: Two Different Sovereignty Discourses in the EU and Candidate Countries? In Walker N. (ed). SOVEREIGNTY IN TRANSITION (Oxford: Hart, forthcoming 2003).

4 Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands and Denmark. 5 Italy, France, Spain and Greece. The Finnish Constitution has two separate sentences in this regard. 6 Pöhiseadus ja Pöhiseaduse Assamblee [Constitution and Constitutional Assembly]. (Tallinn: Öigusteabe AS Juura, 1996), at 530. 7 E.g. Korkelia K., New Trends Regarding the Relationship between International and National Gaw (with a special view towards the states of Eastern Europe) ( 1997) REVIEW OF CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN LAW, No 3/4, at 227; Stein E., International Law in Internal Law: Toward Internationalization of Central-Eastern European Constitutions? (1994) 88 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL Lag, No 3, pp 427-450.

8 Sadurski W., Conclusions: On the Relevance of Institutions and the Centrality of Constitutions in Post-Communist Transitions, In Zielonka J., Pravda A. (eds) Democratic CONSOLIDATION IN EASTERN EUROPE. VOLUME 1: Institutional ENGINEERING (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001 at 461. 9 Fenichel Pitkin H., The Idea of a Constitution ( 1987) 37 JOURNAL OF LEGAL EDUCATION, at 167, cited in Sadurski, supra note 8, at 462. 10 See also Law on Referendum. Adopted 13. 03. 2002 (RT I 2002, 30, 176), amended 12. 06. 2002 (RT I 2002, 57, 355) and 15. 10. 2002 (RT I 2002, 90, 517).

11 Pöhiseaduse 7. peatükk 'Seadusandlus'. Pöhiseaduse Ekspertiisikomisjoni aruanne [Expert Commission's report on Chapter 7 'Legislation' of the Constitution], in the Expert Commission Final Report on the Estonian Constitution, 1998, 1 L.Hänni in Pöhiseadus ja Pöhiseaduse Assamblee..., supra note 6, at 530, cited in Pöhiseaduse 7. peatükk..., supra note 11.

13 Adopted 31.03.1994, Latv�as Vestnesis 20.04.1994, amended 03.09.1998. 14 Buka A., Jarinovska K., Will referendum on Accession to the EU take place in Latvia? (in Latvian) (1999) LIKUMS utaD TIESIBAS, No 1. 15 See also Law On Amending and Supplementing the Law on the Referendum, 15.06.1994 No. 1-496, in English bin/eng/preps2?Conditionl=21926&Condition2=.

16 Leedu euroreferendumi löplikud tulemused [Final results of the Lithuanian Euro- referendum]. BNS News, 15.05.2003. 17 Reported in Vadapalas V., Lithuania: The Constitutional Impact of the Enlargement at National Level In Kellermann A., De Zwaan J., Czuczai J. (eds) EU ENLARGEMENT. THE CONSTITUTIONAL IMPACT AT EU AND NATIONAL LEVEL (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2001 ), at 351. 1. 18 See news reports in Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty website 19 Constitutional Watch -Lithuania, EAST EUROPEAN CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW VOI 11, No 3, 2002.

20 Republic of Lithuania Constitutional Law on the Amendment of Articles 136 and 138 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania. Draft of the Working Group established under the Seimas Chancellery. In Stojimas I Europos Sajunga Ir Konstituc�a. Seminaro Medziaga 29-30.06.1999 (Vilnius: Eugrimas, 2000), p 138ff. 1 Vadapalas, supra note 17, at 366-368. 22 Vadapalas, supra note 17, at 351.

z3 Reported and supported by Vitkus G. Referendums on the Membership in the European Union: the History, Issues and Lessons for Lithuania. Summary. Available at 24 Constitutional Wach -Lithuania, EAST EUROPEAN CONSTITU770NAL REVIEW, Voll1 No 3, 2002. zs Lithuanian Parliament Passes New Referendum Law. RFElRL Newsline Vol. 6, No. 104, Part II, 05.06.2002. zb Lithuanian Premier Wants to Lower the Bar in EU Referendum. RFElRL Newsline, Vol. 7, No. 13, Part II, 22.01.2003. 27 Is EU Vote to Be Downgraded to 'Advisory' Referendum? RFElRL Baltic States Report, Vol. 4, No. 7, 28.02.2003.

z8 Lithuania's Council of National Communities Supports EU Membership. RFElRL Newsline, Vol. 7, No. 85, Part II, 06.05.2003. 29 Ishkauskas C. Esmatähtis on kartul, referendum tuleb pärast [Potatoes are of primary importance, referendum follows afterwards]. Postimees, 14.05.2003. 3o Leedu hääletas nagu iseseisvust taastades [Lithuania voted as when re-establishing independence]. Postimees, 13.05.2003; Lithuanians Overwhelmingly Approve EU Membership. RFEIRL Newsline Vol. 7, No. 88, Part II, 12.05.2003; Constitutional Watch - Lithuania. East European Constitutional Review, Vol 11, No 3, 2002. 31 Reported by Vitkus, supra note 23. 32 Lithuanian Free Market Institute. Debates on a Referendum on Lithuania's Membership in the EU. February 2003,

33 Vöimalik lütumine Euroopa Liiduga ja selle öiguslik tähendus Eesti riigiöiguse seisukohal [Potential accession to the European Union and its consequences to Estonian constitutional law, 1998, in Estonian at 3a Reported in Postimees 19.05.2001. 3s Eg. by M. Nutt (MP and Member of the Constitutional Affairs Commission of the Parliament), in Parliament's session of 04.12.2000, 36 Roonemaa H. Meri: rahvas vöiks aastate pärast hääletada euroliidust välja astumist, [Meri: the people could vote on secession from the EU after a few years]. Eesti Päevaleht, 05.05.2001. 37 Laar M. Speech at Riigikogu session of 18.01.2001,

38 Mattheus Ü. Pöhiseaduse muutjad Eesti suveräänsuse kahjustamist ei karda. [The amenders of the Constitution are not afraid of harming Estonia's sovereignty] Raadio Vaba Euroopa Online, 16.05.2002, 39 Jöks A. Pöhiseadus muutuste künnisel [Constitution in the doorstep of changes]. Postimees 17.04.2002; Öiguskantsleri arvamus Justiitsministeeriumis välja töötatud eelnöu "Pöhiseaduse rakendamine Euroopa Liidu liikmeks oleku tingimustes" kohta [Legal Chancellor's Opinion on the Ministry of Justice draft law "Implementation of the Constitution in the Conditions of European Union membership"], 16.04.2002. 40 Maruste R. Pöhiseadust tuleks siiski muuta [The Constitution should still be amended]. Postimees 30.01.2002. 41 Ühispöördumine seoses nn Pöhiseaduse Kolmanda akti riigiöiguslike probleemidega [Joint public Statement concerning the constitutional problems of the Third Constitutional Act], by A. Albi, M. Gallagher, I. Koolmeister, R. Maruste, L. Mälksoo and P. Roosma, (2002) JURIDICA, No 5, at 352-353.

42 Lätis on enamuses ELi vastased [In Latvia, the EU opponents form the majority]. Postimees. 02.05.2002; Arak V. Lätlaste euroskeptitsismi süvendab poliitikute madal maine [The Euroscepticism of Latvians is deepened by the low reputation of the politicians]. Raadio Vaba Euroopa Online, 07.05.2002 ( a3 Latvian Parliament Approves Amendments to Constitution to Organize EU Referendum. RFElRG Newsline Vol. 7, No. 87, Part 11, 09.05.2003.

44 Amendments and explanatory part are available in The Theoretica! Foundation of the Amendments to Satversme proposed by the Working Group. (Riga: Ministry of Justice, November 2001). ). 4S Solvita Habracevica in her presentation on the Working Group's draft amendments in conference 'The Sovereignty of Latvia and Membership of the EU', organised by the Ministry of Justice on 23.11.2001 in the Riga Graduate School of Law.

46 See in more detail Albi A., Referendums in the CEE Candidate Countries: Implications for the EU Treatv Amendment Procedure In Hillion C. EU ENLARGEMENT: A 'LEGAL' APPROACH (Oxford: Hart, forthcoming 2003), and Albi A., Referendums in Eastern Europe: The Effects on Reforming the EU Treaties and on the Candidate Countries' Positions in the Convention. European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre Working Paper, No 2002/65. 47 Müller-Graff P.-C., 'The Future of the European Treaties - A Systematic Approach to a Basic Treaty', Heidelberg, 2001, nice/contributions/MÜLLER- GRAFF-2.doc, at 16. °e Weizsäcker R., Dehaene J.-L., Simon D. "The Institutional Implications of Enlargement. Report to the European Commission". Brussels, 18.10.1999, en.pdf

s9 "Reforming the Treaties' Amendment Procedures. Second Report on the Reorganising of the European Union Treaties." (European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre, Florence, 31.07.2000),�rreaties.html so See for overview and discussion De Witte B., Entry Into Force And Revision In De Witte B. (ed) TEN PEFLECTIONS ON THE CONSTITUTIONAL TREATY FOR EUROPE (European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Florence, 2003), pp 203-219. 51 Strong Calls Across Europe for Referendum on Constitution., 13.06.2003; Let the People Vote. The Economist, 24.06.2003.

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