ENGLISH CRIMINAL JUSTICE—A SYSTEM IN CRISIS

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References

CAVADINO & DIGNAN, THE PENAL SYSTEM: AN INTRODUCTION, (London: Sage, 1992). 2 FITZGERALD & SIM, BRITISH PRISONS, (2nd edn., Oxford: Basil Blackwell), 3. 1 MORRIS, CRIME AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE SINC'E 1945, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989), 125.

° In its regular PRISON INFORMATION BULLETIN. See also National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (NACRO), Imprisonment in Western Europe: Some Fams and Figures, Briefing Paper, January 1993. 5 EXPERIENCES OF CRIME ACROSS THE WORLD (Kluwer, 1990); see also NACRO, Imprisonmem in Western Europe: Some Facets and Figures, Briefing Paper, January 1993.

6 Home Office, Projections of Long-term Trends in the Prison Population to 1999, HOME OFFICE STATISTICAL. BULLETIN 10/91. ' King & Mcdermott, British Prisons 1970-1987: �Ite ever-deepening Crisis, BRITISH JOURNAL OF C�RIMINOLOGY, 1989, vol. 29, 107-128.

' Which is the main trade union representing the interests of British Prison Officers.

9 In 1991 78% of all offenders in England and Wales were dealt with by means of the fine-though the vast majority of these were convicted of relatively minor offences.

10 The horrific killing of James Bulger in February 1993 was widely reported in the British press. " The overall increase in the level of recorded crime during this period averaged 6 per cent per year.

12 Bottoms, Reflections on the Renaissance of Dangerousness, in: HOWARD JOUR- NAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, 1977, vol. 16, 70-96.

" This involved the construction of 25 new prisons containing an additional 21,000 prison places at an estimated cost of english pound 1,355 million. See NACRO, The Prison Building Programme, Briefing Paper, January 1990. ''' See note 6 above.

WOOLF AND TUMIM, PRISON DISTURBANCES, 1990 (Cm 1456. London: HMSO).

'" Home Office, Custody, Care and Justice: The Way Ahead for the Prison Service in England and Wales (Cm 1647. London: HMSO).

" Lord Carlisle, 77ie Parole System in England and Wales: Report of the Review Committee (Cm 532. London: HMSO).

�" CAVADINO AND DIGNAN, THE PENAL SYSTEM: AN INTRODUCTION (London: Sage, 1992), 249.

10 CAVADINO AND DIGNAN, THE PENAL SYSTEM: AN INTRODUCTION (London: Sage, 1992), Chapter 4. Z° HUDSON, JUSTICE THROUGH PUNISHMENT: A CRITIQUE OF THE `.IUSTICE MODEL' OF CORRECTIONS, (London: Macmillan Education, 1987).

21See BRAITHWAITE, CRIME. SHAME AND REINTEGRATION (Cambridge: Cambrid- ge University Press, 1989). 22 See Haley, Confession, Repentence and Absolution, in Wright and Galaway, MEDIATION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: VICTIMS, OFFENDERS AND COMMUNITY, 195-201 (London: Sage, 1989). " Haley & Neugebauer, Victim-offender Mediation: Japanese and American Comparisons, in Otto & Messmer, RESTORATIVE JUSTICE ON TRIAL: PITFALLS AND POTENTIALS OF VICTIM-OFFENDER MEDIATION -INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PERSPEC- TIVES, 105-127 (Deventer: Kluwer, 1992).

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