CAVADINO & DIGNAN, THE PENAL SYSTEM: AN INTRODUCTION, (London: Sage, 1992). 2 FITZGERALD & SIM, BRITISH PRISONS, (2nd edn., Oxford: Basil Blackwell), 3. 1 MORRIS, CRIME AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE SINC'E 1945, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989), 125.
° In its regular PRISON INFORMATION BULLETIN. See also National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (NACRO), ImprisonmentinWesternEurope:SomeFamsandFigures, Briefing Paper, January 1993. 5 EXPERIENCES OF CRIME ACROSS THE WORLD (Kluwer, 1990); seealso NACRO, ImprisonmeminWesternEurope:SomeFacetsandFigures, Briefing Paper, January 1993.
6 Home Office, ProjectionsofLong-termTrendsinthePrisonPopulationto1999, HOME OFFICE STATISTICAL. BULLETIN 10/91. ' King & Mcdermott, British Prisons 1970-1987: �Iteever-deepeningCrisis, BRITISH JOURNAL OF C�RIMINOLOGY, 1989, vol. 29, 107-128.
' Which is the main trade union representing the interests of British Prison Officers.
9 In 1991 78% of all offenders in England and Wales were dealt with by means of the fine-though the vast majority of these were convicted of relatively minor offences.
10 The horrific killing of James Bulger in February 1993 was widely reported in the British press. " The overall increase in the level of recorded crime during this period averaged 6 per cent per year.
12 Bottoms, Reflections on the Renaissance of Dangerousness, in: HOWARD JOUR- NAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, 1977, vol. 16, 70-96.
" This involved the construction of 25 new prisons containing an additional 21,000 prison places at an estimated cost of english pound 1,355 million. See NACRO, ThePrisonBuildingProgramme, Briefing Paper, January 1990. '''See note 6 above.
WOOLF AND TUMIM, PRISON DISTURBANCES, 1990 (Cm 1456. London: HMSO).
'" Home Office, Custody,CareandJustice:TheWayAheadforthePrisonServiceinEnglandandWales (Cm 1647. London: HMSO).
" Lord Carlisle, 77ieParoleSysteminEnglandandWales:ReportoftheReviewCommittee (Cm 532. London: HMSO).
�" CAVADINO AND DIGNAN, THE PENAL SYSTEM: AN INTRODUCTION (London: Sage, 1992), 249.
10 CAVADINO AND DIGNAN, THE PENAL SYSTEM: AN INTRODUCTION (London: Sage, 1992), Chapter 4. Z° HUDSON, JUSTICE THROUGH PUNISHMENT: A CRITIQUE OF THE `.IUSTICE MODEL' OF CORRECTIONS, (London: Macmillan Education, 1987).
21See BRAITHWAITE, CRIME. SHAME AND REINTEGRATION (Cambridge: Cambrid- ge University Press, 1989). 22See Haley, Confession,RepentenceandAbsolution, in Wright and Galaway, MEDIATION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: VICTIMS, OFFENDERS AND COMMUNITY, 195-201 (London: Sage, 1989). " Haley & Neugebauer, Victim-offenderMediation:JapaneseandAmericanComparisons,in Otto & Messmer, RESTORATIVE JUSTICE ON TRIAL: PITFALLS AND POTENTIALS OF VICTIM-OFFENDER MEDIATION -INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PERSPEC- TIVES, 105-127 (Deventer: Kluwer, 1992).