Time, Emotion and the Embodiment of Timing

in Timing & Time Perception
No Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The past few decades have seen an explosion in studies exploring the effects of emotion on time judgments. The aim of this review is to describe the results of these studies and to look at how they try to explain the time distortions produced by emotion. We begin by examining the findings on time judgments in affective disorders, which allow us to make a clear distinction between the feelings of time distortion that originate from introspection onto subjective personal experience, and the effects of emotion on the basic mechanisms involved in time perception. We then report the results of behavioral studies that have tested the effects of emotions on time perceptions and the temporal processing of different emotional stimuli (e.g. facial expressions, affective pictures or sounds). Finally, we describe our own studies of the embodiment of timing. Overall, the different results on time and emotion suggest that temporal distortions are an indicator of how our brain and body adapt to the dynamic structure of our environment.

Time, Emotion and the Embodiment of Timing

in Timing & Time Perception

Sections

References

AdolphsR.DamasioH.TranelD.CooperG.DamasioA. R. (2000). A role for somatosensory cortices in the visual recognition of emotion as revealed by 3-D lesion mapping. J. Neurosci.2026832690.

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic Criteria from the DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

AndersonM. J.Reis-CostaK.MisaninJ. R. (2007). Effects of September 11th terrorism stress on estimated duration. Percept. Motor Skill.104799802.

AngrilliA.CherubiniP.PaveseA.ManfrediniS. (1997). The influence of affective factors on time perception. Percept. Psychophys.59972982.

BalsamP. D.DrewM. R.GallistelC. R. (2010). Time and associative learning. Comp. Cogn. Behav. Rev.5122.

BarghJ. A.ChenM.BurrowsL. (1996). The automaticity of social behaviour: direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol.71230244.

Bar-HaimY.KeremA.LamyD.ZakayD. (2010). When time slows down: the influence of threat on time perception in anxiety. Cogn. Emotion24255263.

BarsalouL. W. (1999). Perceptual symbol system. Behav. Brain Sci.22577660.

BarsalouL. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Ann. Rev. Psychol.59617645.

BechP. (1975). Depression: influence on time estimation and time experiments. Acta Psychiat. Scand.514250.

BergsonH. (1968). Durée et simultanéité. Presses Universitaires de France.

BlewettA. E. (1992). Abnormal subjective time experience in depression. Brit. J. Psychiat.161195200.

BradleyM. M.LangP. J. (1999). International affective digitized sounds (IADS): stimuli instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical Report B-2. Gainesville FL USA: The Center for Research in Psychophysiology University of Florida.

BrownB. L.RicherP.DoyèreV. (2007). The effect of an intruded event on peak-interval timing in rats: isolation of a postcue effect. Behav. Proc.74300310.

BschorT.IsingM.BauerM.LewitzkaU.SkerstupeitM.Müller-OerlinghausenB.BaethgeC. (2004). Time experience and time judgment in major depression, mania and healthy subjects. A controlled study of 93 subjects. Acta Psychiat. Scand.109222229.

BuettiS.LlerasA. (2012). Perceiving control over aversive and fearful events can alter how we experience those events: an investigation of time perception in spider-fearful individuals. Front. Psychol.3117.

BuhusiC. V.MeckW. H. (2002). Differential effects of methamphetamine and haloperidol on the control of an internal clock. Behav. Neurosci.116291297.

BurleB.CasiniL. (2001). Dissociation between activation and attention effects in time estimation: implication for internal clock models. J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform.27195205.

CampbellL. A.BryantR. A. (2007). How time flies: a study of novice skydivers. Behav. Res. Ther.4513891392.

ChambonM.GilS.NiedenthalP. M.Droit-VoletS. (2005). Psychologie sociale et perception du temps. Psychol. Fr.50167180.

ChambonM.Droit-VoletS.NiedenthalP. M. (2008). The effect of embodying the elderly on time perception. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol.44672678.

ConwayL. G. (2004). Social contagion of time perception. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol.40113120.

CoullJ. T.VidalF.NazarianB.MacarF. (2004). Functional anatomy of the attentional modulation of time estimation. Science30315061508.

CoullJ. T.ChengR. K.MeckW. H. (2011). Neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates of timing. Neuropsychopharmacol.36325.

CraigA. D. (2009). Emotional moments across time: a possible neural basis for time perception in the anterior insula. Philos. T. R. Soc. B36419331942.

DamasioA. R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York, USA: Harcourt Brace.

DecetyJ.ChaminadeT. (2003). Neural correlates of feeling sympathy. Neuropsychologia41127138.

DimbergU.ThunbergM.GrunedalS. (2002). Facial reactions to emotional stimuli: automatically controlled emotional responses. Cogn. Emotion16449471.

DoiH.ShinoharaK. (2009). The perceived duration of emotional face is influenced by the gaze direction. Neurosci. Lett.45797100.

Droit-VoletS. (1998). Adaptation to time in young children: an initial force rule governing temporal behavior. J. Exp. Child Psychol.68236249.

Droit-VoletS. (2011). Child and time. In VatakisA.EspositoA.GiagkouM.CumminsF.PapdelisG. (Eds.) Multidisciplinary aspects of time and time perception (pp.  151173). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Droit-VoletS. (2013a). Time perception, emotions and mood disorders. J. Physiology–Parishttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphysparis.2013.03.005.

Droit-VoletS. (2013b). Time perception in children: a neurodevelopmental approach. Neuropsychologia51220234.

Droit-VoletS. (in press). What emotions tell us about time. In LloydD.ArstilaV. (Eds.) Subjective time: the philosophy psychology and neuroscience of temporality. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.

Droit-VoletS.RattatA.-C. (1999). Are time and action dissociated in young children’s time estimation? Cogn. Dev.14573595.

Droit-VoletS.WeardenJ. (2002). Speeding up an internal clock in children? Effects of visual flicker on subjective duration. Quart. J. Exp. Psychol.55B193211.

Droit-VoletS.MeckW. H. (2007). How emotions colour our time perception. Trends Cogn. Sci.1504513.

Droit-VoletS.GilS. (2009). The time-emotion paradox. J. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B — Biol. Sci.36419431953.

Droit-VoletS.BrunotS.NiedenthalP. M. (2004). Perception of the duration of emotional events. Cogn. Emotion18849858.

Droit-VoletS.MermillodM.Cocenas-SilvaR.GilS. (2010a). The effect of expectancy of a threatening event on time perception in human adults. Emotion10908914.

Droit-VoletS.BigandE.RamosD.BuenoJ. L. O. (2010b). Time flies with music whatever its emotional valence. Acta Psychol.135226236.

Droit-VoletS.FayolleS. L.GilS. (2011). Emotional state and time perception: mood elicited by films. Front. Integr. Neurosci.533.

EffronD.NiedenthalP.GilS.Droit-VoletS. (2006). Embodied temporal perception of emotion. Emotion619.

EkmanP.FriesenW. (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Consulting Psychologist Press.

EkmanP.DavidsonR. (1994). The nature of emotion: fundamental questions. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.

FalkJ. L.BindraD. (1954). Judgment of time as a function of serial position and stress. J. Exp. Psychol.39327331.

FraisseP. (1967). Psychologie du temps. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.

FridlundA. J. (1997). The new ethology of human facial expressions. In RussellJ. A.DolsJ. M. F. (Eds.) New directions in the study of facial expressions (pp.  103129). New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

FrijdaN. H. (2000). The psychologists’ point of view. In LewisM.Haviland-JonesJ. M. (Eds.) Handbook of emotions (2nd ed.pp. ç-74). New York, USA: Guilford Press.

FrijdaN. H. (2007). The laws of emotion. Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

FuchsT. (2001). Melancholia as a desynchronisation. Psychopathology34179186.

GableP. A.PooleB. D. (2012). Time flies when you’re having approach-motivated fun: effects of motivational intensity on time perception. Psychol. Sci. doi:10.1177/0956797611435817.

GallagherS. (2012). Time, emotion, and depression. Emotion Rev.416.

GalleseV.FadigaL.FogassiL.RizzolattiG. (1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain119593609.

GibbonJ. (1977). Scalar expectancy theory and Weber’s law in animal timing. Psychological Review84279325.

GibbonJ.ChurchR. M.MeckW. H. (1984). Scalar timing in memory. In GibbonJ.AllanL. (Eds.) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 423: Timing and time perception (pp.  5277). New York, USA: New York Academy of Sciences.

GilS.Droit-VoletS. (2009). Time perception, depression and sadness. Behav. Proc.80169176.

GilS.Droit-VoletS. (2011a). How do emotional facial expressions influence our perception of time. In MasmoudiS.Yan DaiD.NaceurA. (Eds.) Attention representation and human performance: integration of cognition emotion and motivation. London, UK: Psychology PressTaylor & Francis.

GilS.Droit-VoletS. (2011b). Time flies in the presence of angry faces, depending on the temporal task used! Acta Psychol.136354362.

GilS.Droit-VoletS. (2011c). Time perception in response to ashamed faces in children and adults. Scand. J. Psychol.52138145.

GilS.Droit-VoletS. (2012). Emotional time distortions: the fundamental role of arousal. Cogn. Emotion26847862.

GilS.NiedenthalP.Droit-VoletS. (2007). Anger and temporal perception in children. Emotion7219225.

GilS.RoussetS.Droit-VoletS. (2009). How liked or disliked food affect time perception? Emotion9457463.

GrinkerJ.GlucksmanM. L.HirschJ.ViseltearG. (1973). Time perception as a function of weight reduction: a differentiation based on age at onset of obesity. Psychosom. Med.35104111.

GrommetE. K.Droit-VoletS.GilS.HemmesN. S.BakerA. H.BrownB. (2010). Effects of a fear cue on time estimation in human observers. Behav. Proc.868893.

GualtieriC. T.JohnsonL. G.BenedictK. B. (2006). Neurocognition in depression: patients on and off medication versus healthy comparison subjects. J. Neuropsychiat. Clin. Neurosci.18217225.

GuyauM. (1890). La genèse de l’idée de temps. Paris, France: Felix Alcan.

HareR. D. (1963). The estimation of short temporal intervals terminated by shock. J. Clin. Psychol.19378380.

HarringtonD. L.ZimbelmanJ. L.HintonS. C.RaoS. M. (2010). Neural modulation of temporal encoding, maintenance, and decision processes. Cerebral Cortex2012741285.

HawkinsW. L.FrenchL. C.CrawfordB. D.EnzleM. E. (1988). Depressed affect time and time depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol.97275280.

HeideggerH. (1995). L’Etre et le temps. Paris, France: Gallimard (original work published in 1927).

HofferA.OsmondH. (1962). The relationship between mood and time perception. Psychiat. Q. Supp.368792.

IvryR. B.SchlerfJ. E. (2008). Dedicated and intrinsic models of time perception. Trends Cogn. Sci.12273280.

KitamuraT.KumarR. (1982). Time passes slowly for patients with depressive state. Acta Psychol. Scand.4127140.

KitamuraT.KumarR. (1984). Controlled study on time reproduction of depressive patients. Psychopathology172427.

KosterE. H. W.De LissnyderE.DerakshanN.De RaedtR. (2011). Understanding depressive rumination from a cognitive science perspective: the impaired disengagement hypothesis. Clin. Psychol. Rev.31138145.

KuhsH.HermannW.KammerK.TolleR. (1991). Time estimation and the experience of time in endogenous depression (Melancholia): an experimental investigation. Psychopathology24711.

LambrechtsA.MellaN.PouthasV.NoulhianeM. (2011). Subjectivity of time perception: a visual emotional orchestration. Front. Integr. Neurosci.5(73) 16.

LamotteM.IzauteM.Droit-VoletS. (2012). The consciousness of time distortions and their effect on time judgment: a metacognitive approach. Conscious. Cogn.21835842.

LangP. J.BradleyM. M.CuthbertB. N. (1999). International affective picture rating system (IAPS): instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical Report A-4. Gainsville FL USA: The Centre for Research in Psychophysiology University of Florida.

LangerJ.WapnerS.WernerH. (1961). The effect of danger upon the experience of time. Am. J. Psychol.749497.

LedouxJ. E. (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Ann. Rev. Neurosci.23155184.

LedouxJ. E. (2007). The amygdal. Curr. Biol.23868874.

LedouxJ. E. (2012). Rethinking the emotional brain. Neuron23653676.

LehmannH. E. (1967). Time and psychopathology. Ann. NY Acad. Sci.138798821.

LejeuneH. (1998). Switching or gating? The attentional challenge in cognitive models of psychological time. Behav. Proc.44127145.

LemkeM. R.KoetheN. H.SchleidtM. (2000). Segmentation of behavior and time structure of movements in depressed patients. Psychopathology33131136.

LevinI. (1979). Interference of time-related and unrelated cues with duration comparison of young children: analysis of Piaget’s formulation of the relation of time and speed. Child Dev.50469477.

LewisA. (1932). The experience of time in mental disorder. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med.25611620.

LewisP. A.MiallR. C. (2006). Remembering the time: a continuous clock. Trends Cogn. Sci.10401406.

LoftusE. F.SchoolerJ. W.BooneS. M.KlineD. (1987). Time went by so slowly: overestimation of event durations by males and females. Appl. Cogn. Psychol.1313.

LuiM. A.PenneyT. B.SchirmerA. (2011). Emotion effects on timing: attention versus pacemaker accounts. PlosOne6e21829.

MaricqA. V.RobertsS.ChurchR. M. (1981). Metamphetamine and time estimation. J. Exp. Psychol.: Animal Behav. Proc.71830.

MatellM. S.MeckW. H. (2000). Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior. BioEssays2294103.

MatellM. S.MeckW. H. (2004). Cortico-striatal circuits and interval timing: coincidence detection of oscillatory processes. Cogn. Brain Res.21139170.

MaukM.BuonomanoD. (2004). The neural basis of temporal processing. Ann. Rev. Neurosci.27207340.

MayerJ. D.GaschkeY. N. (1988). The experience and meta-experience mood. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol.55102111.

MeckW. H. (1983). Selective adjustement of the speed of the clock and memory processes. J. Exp. Psychol.: Animal Behav. Proc.9171201.

MeckW. H.MacdonaldC. J. (2007). Amygdala inactivation reverses fear’s ability to impair divided attention and make time stand still. Behav. Neurosci.121707720.

MeckW. H.PenneyT.PouthasV. (2008). Cortico-striatal representation of time in animals and humans. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.18145152.

MellaN.ContyL.PouthasV. (2010). The role of physiological arousal in time perception: psychophysiological evidence from an emotion regulation paradigm. Brain Cogn.75(2) 182187.

MezeyA. G.CohenS. I. (1961). The effect of depressive illness on time judgment and time experience. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Ps.24269.

MinkowskiE. (1988). Le temps vécu. Imago Mundi, Chile: Brionne (réedition Delachaux et Niestlé 1968).

MondillonL.NiedenthalP. M.GilS.Droit-VoletS. (2007). Imitation of in-group versus out-group members’ facial expressions of anger. A test with a time perception task. Soc. Neurosci.2223237.

MsetfiR. M.MurphyR. A.KornbrotD. E. (2012). The effect of mild depression on time discrimination. Quart. J. Exp. Psychol.65632645.

MunzelK.GendnerG.SteinbergR.RaithL. (1988). Time estimation of depressive patients: the influence of interval content. Eur. Arch. Psychiat. Neurol. Sci.237171178.

NatherF. C.BuenoJ. L. O.BigandE.Droit-VoletS. (2011). Time changes with the embodiment of another’s body posture. PlosOne617.

NiedenthalP. M. (2007). Embodying emotion. Science31610021005.

NoulhianeM.MellaN.SamsonS.RagotR.PouthasV. (2007). How emotional auditory stimuli modulate time perception. Emotion7697704.

ÖhmanA.MinekaS. (2001). Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychol. Rev.108483522.

ÖhmanA.SoaresJ. J. E. (1998). Emotional conditioning to masked stimuli: expectancies for aversive outcomes following nonrecognized fear-relevant stimuli. J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen.1276982.

PausT. (2000). Functional anatomy of arousal and attention systems in the human brain. Prog. Brain Res.1266577.

PeretzI.GagnonL.BouchardB. (1998). Music and emotion: perceptual determinants, immediacy and isolation after brain damage. Cognition68111141.

PhelpsE. A.LedouxJ. E. (2005). Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior. Neuron48175187.

PiagetP. (1946). Le développement de la notion de temps chez l’enfant. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.

PrabhuG. G.AgrawalA. K.TejaJ. S. (1969). Effect of anxiety and depression on time estimation and judgment. Indian Psychol. Rev.61621.

PulvermüllerF. (2005). Brain mechanism linking language and action. Nature Rev. Neurosci.6576582.

RammsayerT. H. (1990). Temporal discrimination in schizophrenic and affective disorders: evidence for a dopamine-dependent internal clock. Int. J. Neurosci.53111120.

RammsayerT. H. (1993). On dopaminergic modulation of temporal information. Biol. Psychol.36209222.

RammsayerT.VogelW. (1992). Pharmacological properties of the internal clock underlying time perception in humans. Neuropsychobiology267180.

RatcliffeM. (2012). Varieties of temporal experience in depression. J. Med. Philos.37114138.

RattatA.-C.Droit-VoletS. (2002). Le transfert d’apprentissage de durée d’action chez le jeune enfant: l’effet facilitateur de la variété des actions? Enfance54141153.

RizzolattiG.FadigaL.GalleseV.FogassiL. (1996). Premotor cortex and and the recognition of motor actions. Cogn. Brain Res.3131141.

RobertsonI. H.GaravanH. (2004). Vigilant attention. In GazzanigaM. S. (Ed.) The cognitive neurosciences (pp.  563578). Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.

SchaeferA.NilsF.SanchezX.PhilippotP. (2010). Assessing the effectiveness of a large database of emotion-eliciting films: a new tool for emotion researchers. Cogn. Emotion2411531172.

SévignyM.-C.EverettJ.GrondinS. (2003). Depression, attention, and time estimation. Brain Cogn.53351353.

ShiZ.JiaL.MüllerH. J. (2012). Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures. Front. Integr. Neurosci. doi:10.3389/fnint.2012.00024.

SmithS. D.McIverT. A.Di NellaM. S. J.CreaseM. L. (2011). The effects of valence and arousal on the emotional modulation of time perception: evidence for multiple stages of processing. Emotion1113051313.

StetsonC.FiestaM. P.EaglemanD. M. (2007). Does time really slow down during a frightening event? PLosOne1213.

StrausE. (1947). Disorders of personal time in depressive states. South. Med. J.25254259.

TipplesJ. (2008). Negative emotionality influences the effects of emotion on time perception. Emotion8127131.

TipplesJ. (2011). When time stands still: fear-specific modulation of temporal bias due to threat. Emotion117480.

TreismanM. (1963). Temporal discrimination and the indifference interval: implications for a model of the ‘internal clock. Psychol. Monogr.77113.

TreismanM.FaulknerA.NaishP.BroganD. (1990). The internal clock: evidence for a temporal oscillator underlying time perception with some estimates of its characteristic frequency. Perception19705743.

TyskL. (1984). Time perception and affective disorders. Percept. Motor Skill.58455464.

van HeijnsbergenC.MeerenH.GrèzesJ.de GelderB. (2007). Rapid detection of fear in body expressions, an ERP study. Brain Res.1186233241.

VuilleumierP. (2005). How brains beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention. Trends Cogn. Sci.9585594.

WangL.Yi JiangY. (2012). Life motion signals lengthen perceived temporal duration. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA109E673E677.

WatkinsE.BrownR. G. (2002). Rumination and executive function in depression: an experimental study. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Ps.72400402.

WattsF. N.SharrockR. (1984). Fear and time estimation. Percept. Motor Skill.59597598.

WeardenJ. H. (2008). Slowing down an internal clock: implications for accounts of performance on four timing. Quart. J. Exp. Psychol.61263274.

WeardenJ. H.PhilpottK.WinT. (1999). Speeding up and (…relatively…) slowing down and internal clock in humans. Behav. Proc.466373.

WienerM.TurkeltaubP.CosletteH. B. (2010). The image of time: a voxel-wise meta-analysis. NeuroImage4917281740.

WilliamsonL. L.ChengR. K.EtchegarayM.MeckW. H. (2008). Speed’ warps time: methamphetamine’s interactive roles in drug abuse, habit formation, and the biological clocks of circadian and interval timing. Curr. Drug Abuse Rev.1203212.

WittmannM.SimmonsA. N.AronJ. L.PaulusM. P. (2010a). Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time. Neuropsychologia4831103120.

WittmannM.van WassenhoveV.CraigA. D.PaulusM. P. (2010b). The neural substrates of subjective time dilatation. Front. Human Neurosci.419.

WyrickR. A.WyrickL. C. (1977). Time experience during depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiat.3414411443.

YamadaY.KawabeT. (2011). Emotion colors time perceptions unconsciously. Conscious. Cogn.2018351841.

ZakayD.BlockR. A. (1996). The role of attention in time estimation processes. In PastorM. A.ArtiedaJ. (Eds.) Time internal clocks and movement (pp.  143164). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

ZuiliN.FraisseP. (1946). L’estimation du temps en fonction de la quantité de movements effective dans une tâche. Etude génétique. L’Année Psychologique66383396.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Psychometric function for fear, sadness and neutral. Proportion of long responses plotted against comparison durations (ms) for the bisection task before and after viewing the emotional or the neutral films in the 200/400 and the 800/1600-ms duration range.

  • View in gallery

    Proportion of long responses plotted against comparison durations (ms) for the trials without sound, and with an aversive and a nonaversive sound in the 400/800-ms and the 800/1600-ms duration range.

  • View in gallery

    Different emotional stimuli used for the same emotion of disgust: face expressing disgust, illustration of IAPS-like disgust scene, disgusting food. This figure is published in color in the online version.

  • View in gallery

    Proportion of long responses plotted against comparison durations (ms) for the pictures of 3 body postures depicting a man who is (1) standing up, (2) walking and (3) running in the 100/400-ms and the 200/800-ms duration range.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 127 127 36
Full Text Views 143 143 62
PDF Downloads 6 6 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0