Contributions of the Basal Ganglia to Temporal Processing: Evidence from Parkinson’s Disease

in Timing & Time Perception
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The motor and perceptual timing deficits documented in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have heavily influenced the theory that the basal ganglia play an important role in temporal processing. This review is a systematic exploration of the findings from behavioural and neuroimaging studies of motor and perceptual timing in PD. In particular, we consider the influence of a variety of task factors and of patient heterogeneity in explaining the mixed results. We also consider the effect of basal ganglia dysfunction on the non-temporal cognitive factors that contribute to successful motor and perceptual timing. Although there is convincing evidence from PD that the basal ganglia are critical to motor and perceptual timing, further work is needed to characterize the precise contribution of this complex structure to temporal processing.

Contributions of the Basal Ganglia to Temporal Processing: Evidence from Parkinson’s Disease

in Timing & Time Perception

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    The direct and indirect dopaminergic pathways between the basal ganglia and the cortex in (a) healthy brain (b) Parkinson’s disease. The thickness of the lines indicates level of activity. Grey arrows represent excitatory connections; black arrows represent inhibitory connections. GPe, external segment of the globus pallidus; GPi, internal segment of the globus pallidus; SNc, substantia nigra pars compacta; SNr, substantia nigra pars reticulata; VL, ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus.

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