Metacognitive Questionnaire on Time: Feeling of the Passage of Time

in Timing & Time Perception
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


The aim of our studies was to design a Metacognitive Questionnaire on Time (MQT) that assesses inter-individual variations in the awareness of factors affecting the experience of the passage of time. In the first study, 532 young adults were asked to reply to an initial questionnaire consisting of 106 questions relating to many different factors (e.g., psychostimulant, body temperature, age, attention) that could affect how time is perceived. Factorial analyses allowed us to extract two discriminant factors, one relating to attention and the other to emotion. The second study sought to validate the final 24-item questionnaire by gathering data from 212 university students. Confirmatory Factorial Analyses (AMOS) showed that the MQT has the same two-factor structure. The third study assessed the construct validity of the MQT by measuring the correlation between the MQT scores and the scores with other questionnaires measuring close or different constructs. In sum, these studies enabled us to develop an easy-to-use questionnaire whereby it is possible to distinguish between individuals according to their subjective feeling of the passage of time. In addition, the participants’ responses on the MQT showed that they were more aware of attention-related factors than of emotion-related factors that might produce time distortions, and that women were more aware of their own temporal distortions than men.

Metacognitive Questionnaire on Time: Feeling of the Passage of Time

in Timing & Time Perception



BaconE.HuetN.DanionJ. M. (2011). Metamemory knowledge and beliefs in patients with schizophrenia and how these relate to objective cognitive abilities. Conscious. Cogn.2013151326.

BechP. (1975). Depression: Influence on time estimation and time experience. Acta Psychiatr. Scand.514250.

BlewettA. E. (1992). Abnormal subjective time experience in depression. Br. J. Psychiatry161195200.

BlockR. A.HancockP. A.ZakayD. (2000). Sex differences in duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Mem. Cogn.2813331346.

BlockR. A.HancockP. A.ZakayD. (2010). How cognitive load affects duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Acta Psychol.134330343.

BlockR. A.ZakayD.HancockP. A. (1998). Human aging and duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Psychol. Aging13584596.

BoucheronC. (1995). Version française du M.I.A. (Metamemory in Adulthood) [= A French Version of the Metamemory in Adulthood]. Eur. Rev. Appl. Psychol.45163170.

BrowneM. W.CudeckR. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociol. Meth. Res.21230258.

BuhusiC. V.MeckW. H. (2005). What makes us tick? Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing. Nat. Rev. Neurosci.6755765.

ContiR. (2001). Time flies: Investigating the connection between intrinsic motivation and the experience of time. J. Pers.69126.

CoullJ. T.VidalF.NazarianB.MacarF. (2004). Functional anatomy of the attentional modulation of time estimation. Science303(5663) 15061508.

DavisM. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Cat. Sel. Doc. Psychol.1085.

DixonR. A.HultschD. F.HertzogC. (1988). The Metamemory in Adulthood (MIA) questionnaire. Psychopharmacol. Bull.24671688.

Droit-VoletS. (2013a). Time perception in children: A neurodevelopmental approach. Neuropsychologia51220234.

Droit-VoletS. (2013b). Time perception, emotions and mood disorders. J. Physiol. Paris107255264.

Droit-VoletS.FayolleS.LamotteM.GilS. (2013). Time, emotion and the embodiment of timing. Timing Time Percept.199126.

Droit-VoletS.MeckW. H. (2007). How emotions colour our time perception. Trends Cogn. Sci.1504513.

Droit-VoletS.WeardenJ. H. (2002). Speeding up an internal clock in children? Effects of visual flicker on subjective duration. Q. J. Exp. Psychol.55B193211.

GallagherS. (2012). Time, emotion, and depression. Emot. Rev.4127132.

GoodwinL. D. (2002a). Changing conceptions of measurement validity: An update on the new standards. J. Nurs. Educ.41100106.

GoodwinL. D. (2002b). The meaning of validity. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.3567.

GrondinS. (2010). Timing and time perception: A review of recent behavioral and neuroscience findings and theoretical directions. Atten. Percept. Psychophys.72561582.

HofferA.OsmondH. (1962). The relationship between mood and time perception. Psychiatr. Q. Suppl.368792.

JacksonD. L.GillaspyJ. A.Purc-StephensonR. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: A review and some recommendations. Psychol. Methods14623.

JamesonK. A.NarensL.GoldfarbK.NelsonT. O. (1990). The influence of near-threshold priming on metamemory and recall. Acta Psychol.735568.

KlineR. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY, USA: Guilford Press.

KoriatA. (2007). Metacognition and consciousness. In ZelazoP. D.MoscovitchM.ThompsonE. (Eds.) The Cambridge handbook of consciousness (pp.  289325). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.

LamotteM.IzauteM.Droit-VoletS. (2012). Awareness of time distortions and its relation with time judgment: A metacognitive approach. Conscious. Cogn.21835842.

LejeuneH.WeardenJ. H. (2006). Scalar properties in animal timing: Conformity and violations. Q. J. Exp. Psychol.5918751908.

PiagetJ. (1946). Le développement de la notion de temps chez l’enfant. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.

RadloffL. (1977). The CESD-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl. Psychol. Meas.1385401.

RatcliffeM. (2012). Varieties of temporal experience in depression. J. Med. Philos.37114138.

SackettA. M.MeyvisT.NelsonL. D.ConverseB. A.SackettA. L. (2010). You’re having fun when time flies. Psychol. Sci.21111117.

SandersS. A. (1986). Development of a tool to measure subjective time experience. Nursing Res.35178182.

SchaferJ. L.GrahamJ. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychol. Methods7147177.

SpielbergerC. D.GorsuchR. L.LusheneR.VaggP. R.JacobsG. A. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

SunderlandA.HarrisJ. E.BaddeleyA. D. (1983). Do laboratory tests predict everyday memory? A neuropsychological study. J. Verbal Learning Verbal Behav.22341357.

TonerB. (1987). The impact of agreement bias on the ranking of questionnaire response. The J. Soc. Psychol.127221222.

Van der LindenM.WynsC.CoyetteF.Von FrenckellR.SeronX. (1989). Un questionnaire d’auto-évaluation de la mémoire QAM. Brussels, Belgium: Editest.

WareJ. E.HarrisW. J.GandekB.RogersB. W.ReeseP. R. (1997). MAP-R for Windows: Multi-trait/multi-item analysis program — revised user’s guide. Boston, MA, USA: Health Assessment Lab.

WeardenJ. H.LejeuneH. (2008). Scalar properties in human timing: Conformity and violations. Q. J. Exp. Psychol.61569587.

WeardenJ. H.O’DonoghueA.OgdenR. S.MontgomeryC. (2014). Subjective duration in the laboratory and the world outside. In ArstilaV.LloydD. (Eds.) Subjective time: The philosophy psychology and neuroscience of temporality (pp.  287306). Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.

WeardenJ. H.Penton-VoakI. S. (1995). Feeling the heat: Body temperature and the rate of subjective time, revisited. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Psychol.48129141.

WittmannM.LelandD. S.ChuranJ.PaulusM. P. (2007). Impaired time perception and motor timing in stimulant-dependent subjects. Drug and Alcohol Depend.90183192.

WyrickR. A.WyrickL. C. (1977). Time experience during depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiat.3414411443.

ZimbardoP. G.BoydJ. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol.7712711288.


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 42 42 16
Full Text Views 51 51 35
PDF Downloads 6 6 4
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0