In this study we investigated how individual differences regarding impulsivity and time perspective predict the experience of waiting during a time interval without distraction. Each participant (N = 82) filled out self-report questionnaires on impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and time perspective (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory). Participants were individually shut into an empty room for exactly 7.5 minutes and afterwards asked to report their subjective impressions regarding the experience of time, self and affective reactions. Correlation analyses showed that being more relaxed and having a positive feeling was related to shorter duration estimates and a perceived faster passage of time. Individual traits of impulsivity, present-hedonistic and present-fatalistic time orientation were associated with relative overestimation of duration and a perceived slower passage of time; future orientation was related to an underestimation of duration and a perceived faster passage of time. Multiple regression models show that impulsivity alone predicts the variance related to time estimation of the waiting period. Multiple path analyses reveal that individuals who are more impulsive are less relaxed while waiting and accordingly overestimate duration and feel a slower passage of time. Negative affect and an impulsive present orientation are related to an overestimation of duration and the feeling of a slower passage of time while waiting.
BakerJ., & CameronM. (1996). The effects of the service environment on affect and consumer perception of waiting time: An integrative review and research propositions. J. Acad. Marketing Sci., 24, 338–349.
EggerS., ReichlP., HoßfeldT., & SchatzR. (2012). “Time is bandwidth”? Narrowing the gap between subjective time perception and quality of experience. In: Proc. 2012 IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC), Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 1325–1330.
FrenchR. M., AddymanC., MareschalD., & ThomasE. (2014). Unifying prospective and retrospective interval-time estimation: A fading-Gaussian activation-based model of interval-timing. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., 126, 141–150.
TurelO., & BecharaA. (2016) A triadic reflective-impulsive-interoceptive awareness model of general and impulsive information system use: Behavioral tests of neuro-cognitive theory. Front. Psychol., 7, 601. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00601.
TwengeJ. M., CataneseK. R. & BaumeisterR. F. (2003). Social exclusion and the deconstructed state: Time perception, meaninglessness, lethargy, lack of emotion, and self-awareness. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 85, 409–423.
Van RijnH., GuB. M., & MeckW. H. (2014). Dedicated clock/timing-circuit theories of time perception and timed performance. In: H.Merchant & V.de Lafuente (Eds), Neurobiology of Interval Timing. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 75–99.
WittmannM., RudolphT., Linares GutierrezD., & WinklerI. (2015). Time perspective and emotion regulation as predictors of age-related subjective passage of time. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 12, 16027–16042.
WittmannM., FiedlerH., GrosW., MossbridgeJ., & LucciC. R. (2017). Individual differences related to present and future mental orientation predict the sense of time. https://psyarxiv.com/ezmhp. Accessed October 11, 2017.