Development and Validation of the Temporal Competency Test-5D

In: Timing & Time Perception
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Psychology, University of Nantes, Chemin de la Censive du Tertre, France
  • 2 Department of Psychology, University of Québec in Montréal, Canada
  • 3 Universidad de la República de Uruguay, Uruguay

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€29.95$34.95

We developed and validated a new version of our test of temporal competency. In three studies we (1) defined dimensions, created items and studied face and content validity; (2) examined dimensionality and reliability; and (3) confirmed factor structure and studied convergent validity. Focus groups were held in which we drew up temporal concepts that articulated well with clinical observations. We derived a questionnaire that was administered to French young people and this data was used to reduce the questionnaire to 15 items. Reliability and validity of the 15-item version was studied among samples: French college, French high school, and Québec college. Five dimensions were defined and retained: anticipation, full present, temporal rupture, past, future. 15 items explained 68% of variance. The model provided adequate fit in confirmatory analyses across samples. Scales converged with hypothesized dimensions of the ZTPI and scales mostly maintained acceptable reliability. Conceptual issues with ZTPI were addressed, possibly rectified and discussed in light of clinical practice. The past was defined by how much one grows from experience independently of how ‘happy’ or ‘sad’ events were. Full present and temporal rupture relate to living in the now, the first by means of flow and engagement, the second by means of addictive behaviors. Future entailed a projection unto uncertainty, whereas anticipation defined adapting behavior in order to achieve short-term goals. We found that the questionnaire had adequate psychometric proprieties among Francophone youth in Canada and in France.

  • Apostolidis T. , & Fieulaine N. (2004). Validation française de l’échelle de temporalité : The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI). Eur. Rev. Appl. Psychol., 54, 207217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aurégan P. (1998). Perception du temps et réflexion stratégique: Le cas des dirigeants d’entreprise moyenne . Rev. Finance Controle Strategie, 1, 2748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bourdin D. , & Lambertucci-Mann S. (2007). La psychanalyse de Freud à aujourd’hui: Histoire, concepts, pratique (édition revue et augmentée). Rosny, France: Bréal.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardeña E. , & Alvarado C. S. (2014). Anomalous self and identity experiences. In Cardeña E. , Lynn S. J. , & Krippner S. (Eds), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence , 2nd ed. (pp. 175212). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carré P. (2004). Bandura: Une psychologie pour le XXIe siècle? Savoirs, Hors série(5), 950.

  • Collectif (2016). Le grand Larousse illustré 2017. Paris, France: Editions Larousse.

  • Duteille C. (2002). L’événement de la rencontre comme expérience de rupture temporelle. Arobase J. Lett. Sci. Hum., 6, 8188.

  • Feder F. (2001). Une figure du temps à l’adolescence: Le temps suspendu. Rev. Fr. Psychanal., 65, 795805.

  • Heidegger M. (1927/1996). Being and time: A translation of Zeit Sein und , Stambauch J. (Transl.). Albany, NY, USA: SUNY Press.

  • Hu L.-t. , & Bentler P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychol. Methods, 3, 424453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klapproth F. (2011). Stable and variable characteristics of the time perspective in humans 1. KronoScope, 11, 4159.

  • Loose T. (2017). Etiological models of problematic alcohol consumption among Francophone college students: Personality, temporality and motivation. Thèse de Doctorat, University of Nantes.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loose T. , Acier D. , Pilet J. , & Sysaykeo J. (2017). La temporalité: Un facteur déterminant des conduites addictives. Alcoolog. Addictolog., 39, 111119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mello Z. R. , & Worrell F. C. (2015). The past, the present, and the future: A conceptual model of time perspective in adolescence. In Stolarski M. , Fieulaine N. , & van Beek W. (Eds), Time Perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application (pp. 115129). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mello Z. , Worrell F. , & Buhl M . (2016). Tensions in time perspective: Current debates in the field. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Time Perspective, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merriam-Webster (2016). The Merriam-Webster Dictionary (New). Springfield, MA, USA: Merriam-Webster.

  • Nowack K. , Milfont T. L. , & van der Meer E. (2013). Future versus present: Time perspective and pupillary response in a relatedness judgment task investigating temporal event knowledge. Int. J. Psychophysiol. , 87, 173182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schreiber J. B. , Nora A. , Stage F. K. , Barlow E. A. , & King J. (2006). reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. J. Educ. Res., 99, 323338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shostrom E. L. (1976). Actualizing therapy: Foundations for a scientific ethic. San Diego, CA, USA: Edits Pub.

  • Stolarski M. , Fieulaine N. , & Beek W. van. (2015). Time perspective theory; Review, research and application: Essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strathman A. , Gleicher F. , Boninger D. S. , & Edwards C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 66, 742752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thiébaut E. (1998). La perspective temporelle, un concept à la recherche d’une définition opérationnelle. Annee Psychol., 98, 101125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vowinckel J. C. , Westerhof G. J. , Bohlmeijer E. T. , & Webster J. D. (2015). Flourishing in the now: Initial validation of a present-eudaimonic time perspective scale. Time Soc., 26, 0961463X15577277. doi: 10.1177/0961463X15577277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winnicott D. , Harrus-Révidi G. , Kalmanovitch J. , Michelin M. , & Rosaz L. (2006). La mère suffisamment bonne. Paris, France: Payot & Rivages.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimbardo P. , & Boyd J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 77, 12711288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimbardo P. , & Boyd J. (2008). The time paradox: The new psychology of time that will change your life (6.7.2009 edition). New York, NY, USA: Free Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 168 101 2
Full Text Views 7 5 0
PDF Views & Downloads 4 2 0