A more elaborate discussion of Kang Youwei's position is to be found in Joseph Levenson, Confucian China and its Modern Fate: The Problem of Intellectual Continuity, Berkeley, 1958, pp. 79-94.
s Preface to Xinxue weijing kao (Beijing, 1956, repr. 1988), p. 2. The translation of this passage is by Mark Elvin, "The Collapse of Scriptural Confucian ism," Papers on Far Eastern History, 41 (March 1990), pp. 45-77, on p. 56.
Preface to Gushi bian vol. 1 (1926. Shanghai, Guji chubanshe reprint, 1982), p. 43. Translation by Arthur W. Hummel, The Autobiography of a Chinese Historian, Leiden, 1931, p. 78.
10 A more detailed account of Liang Qichao's (1873-1929) and Tan Sitong's views is given by M. Elvin, "The Collapse of Scriptural Confucianism", pp. 57-73.
" For the following statements by Gu Jiegang see Lawrence A. Schneider, Ku Chieh-kang and China's New History: Nationalism and the Quest for alternative Traditions, Berkeley, 1979, pp. 244-248. For the next quotation, see Gushi bian 5 (reprint Shanghai, 1982), p. 13.
Gu Jiegang, Qin Han de fangshi yu rusheng 1955, p. 71; translation by Schneider, op. cit., p. 244.
zb Cui Dongbi yishu xu pp. 15-17. Cui Dongbi yishu was published in Peking in 1935. See also the new edition, Shanghai, 1983, pp. 1046ff, for Qian Mu's preface.
See Feng Youlan, Zhongguo zhexue shi Shanghai, 1934, pp. 574ff.
'o Suishu (Ed. Zhonghua shuju, 1973), 32/941.
3' Compare, for example, the case of Jia Kui RA , mentioned in Hou Hanshu (modern edition, Zhonghua shuju, 1965), 36/1237.
36 Feng Youlan, Zhonghuo zhexue shi xinbian, Beijing, 1964, Vol. II, p. 215: "If we look at philosophy from the historian's point of view we can explain the struggle of these two schools as one between atheism and theism, between materialism and idealism."
39 Anne Cheng, ktude sur le confucianisme Han, Paris, 1985, p. 136.
42 See Hou Hanshu (Ed. Zhonghua shuju), 31/1107. The story has been quoted and interpreted by Rafe de Crespigny in Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling (Canberra, 1988), vol. II, notes 31 and 36.
ab Hou Hanji (Ed. Tianjin chubanshe, 1987), 14/416.
50 See M. Loewe, in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 1, The Ch'in and Han Empires, Cambridge, 1986, p. 296.
51 On Dou Xian, see Hou Hanshu, 23/813ff, and de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: The Policies and Strategy of the Later Han Empire, Canberra, 1984, pp. 265ff.
bz Werner Meif3ner, Philosophie und Politik in China, Die Kontroverse iiber den dialektischen Materialismus in den dreifliger Jahren, München, 1986. See for example on p. 24.