A re-appraisal of Gegenes Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) based on male and female genitalia, with the description of a new genus, Afrogegenes

in Tijdschrift voor Entomologie
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Examination of male and female genitalia as well as external characters of all species of the current genus Gegenes Hübner, 1819 (Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) led to the observation that two well-marked groups can be distinguished, differing in external characters as well as in male and female genitalia. For one of the two groups a new genus is erected, Afrogegenes. Conventionally, the group for which the new genus is erected contains two species, Gegenes letterstedti (Wallengren, 1857) and G. hottentota (Latreille, 1823), but G. hottentota ocra Evans, 1937, has been given full species rank here, raising the number of species in Afrogegenes to three. G. letterstedti has long been known in the literature as G. niso (Linnaeus, 1764), but this is based on an incorrect lectotype designation. Male and female genitalia are described and figured for all taxa, in some cases for the first time.

A re-appraisal of Gegenes Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) based on male and female genitalia, with the description of a new genus, Afrogegenes

in Tijdschrift voor Entomologie

Sections

References

Aguiar C. Araujo M. B. Garcfa-Barros Saura E. García-Pereira P. Grosso-Silva J. M. Honrado J. Maravalhas E. Meyer M. Miralto M. A. Samways M. J. & T. Schmitt 2003. Hesperiidae. — In: E. Maravalhas (Ed.) As Borboletas de Portugal pp. 173–190. Venlo Norte Porto Portugal.

Aurivillius P.O.C. 1882. Recensio critica Lepidopterorum Musei Ludovicae Ulricae quae descripsit Carolus a Linné. — Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 19(5): 1–188 1 pl.

Benyamini D. 1984. The butterflies of the Sinai peninsula (Lep. Rhopalocera). — Nota Lepidopterologica 7: 309–321.

Benyamini D. 1997. A field guide to the butterflies of Israel. — Keter Publishing House Ltd 234 pp. 139 pls.

Butler A.G. 1870. The genera of Hesperidae in the collection of the British Museum. — Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 7: 55–58 92–99.

Butler A.G. 1881. On the butterflies collected in Socotra by Prof. I.B. Balfour. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1881: 175–180.

Cock M.J.W. & Congdon T.C.E. 2012. Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) principally from Kenya. Part 4. Hesperiinae: Aeromachini and Baorini. — Zootaxa 3438: 1–42.

Coutsis J.G. 2012. A comparison between the female genitalia of Gegenes pumilio and those of G. nostrodamus (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). — Phegea 40: 39–40.

Coutsis J.G. & Olivier A. 1993. Confirmation of the presence of both Gegenes pumilio pumilio (Hofmannsegg 1804) and Gegenes nostrodamus (Fabricius 1793) on the Greek island of Kriti (Crete) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). — Phegea 21: 101–107.

Cuvelier S. 2014. The butterflies and skippers of the North-Aegean Islands of Híos Psará and Lésvos (Greece). New observations and an update on their distribution (Papilonoidea & Hesperioidea). — Phegea 42: 58–70.

De Jong R. 1976. Affinities between the West Palaearctic and Ethiopian butterfly faunas. — Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 119: 165–215.

De Jong R. 2004. Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Taractrocera Butler 1870 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) an example of Southeast Asian-Australian interchange. — Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 78: 383–415.

De Lesse H. 1960. Spéciation et variation chromosomique chez les Lépidoptères Rhopalocères. — Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Ser. 12) 2: 1–223. [Thesis Université de Paris France].

De Lesse H. 1967. Formules chromosomiques de Lépidoptères Rhopalocères de l’Afrique du Nord. — Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 72: 2025.

Dickson C.G.C. & Kroon D.M. (Eds) 1978. Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa 1st ed. — Ad. DonkerJohannesburg, South Africa 670 pp.

Evans W.H. 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. — Trustees of the British Museum London UK xii + 212 pp. 30 pls.

Evans W.H. 1946. LXI. — Revisional notes on African Hesperiidae. — Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Ser. 11) 13: 641–648.

Evans W.H. 1949. A catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe Asia and Australia in the British Museum (Natural History). — Trustees of the British Museum London UK xix + 502 pp. 52 pls.

Fan X. Chiba H. Huang Z. Fei W. & M. Wang 2016. Clarification of the phylogenetic framework of the tribe Baorini (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) inferred from multiple gene sequences. – PLoS One 11: e0156861. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.015861.g001.

Fric Z. 2005. Colotis evagore (Klug 1829) advancing northward in Spain (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). — SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología 33: 169–171.

García-Barros E. Munguira M.L. Stefanescu C. A. Vives Moreno & G. Lamas 2013. Lepidoptera Papilionoidea. — In: M.A. Ramos J. Alba X. Belles J. Gosalbez A. Guerra E. Macpherson J. Serrano & X. Templado (Eds) Fauna Iberica Vol. 37 Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales CSIC Madrid Spain 1213 pp.

Henning G.A. Henning S.F. Joannou J.G. & S.E. Woodhall 1997. Living butterflies of Southern Africa. Biology ecology conservation. Vol. 1: Hesperiidae Papilionidae and Pieridae of South Africa. — Umdaus Press Hatfield South Africa 397 pp.

Hesselbarth G. Van Oorschot H. & S. Wagener 1995. Die Tagfalter der Türkei unter Berücksichtigung der angrenzenden Länder. — Bd 1: 754 pp. Bd 2: 595 pp. Bd 3: 847 pp. 140 pls iv + 342 maps. Selbstverlag S. Wagener Bocholt Germany.

Holland W.J. 1896. A preliminary revision and synonymic catalogue of the Hesperiidae of Africa and the adjacent islands, with descriptions of some apparently new species. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 2–107 pls I–V.

Honey M.R. & Scoble M.J. 2001. Linnaeus’s butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea). — Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 132: 277–399.

Hübner J. 1819. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge [sic!]. — Verfasser Augsburg Germany 431 + 72 pp.

Kielland J. 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania. — Hill House London UK 363 pp. 68 pls 179 genitalia figs.

Kroon D.M. 1973. Notes on Southern African Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera). — Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation 85: 57–58.

Kudrna O. Harpke A. Lux K. Pennerstorfer J. Schweiger O. Settele J. & M. Wiemers 2011. Distribution atlas of butterflies in Europe. — Gesellschaft für Schmetterlingsschutz e.V. Halle Germany 576 pp.

Kuijten P.J. 1974 [1973]. On the occurrence of a hitherto unknown wing-thorax coupling mechanism in Lepidoptera. — Netherlands Journal of Zoology 24: 317–322.

Lafranchis T. 2000. Les papillons de jour de France Belgique et Luxembourg et leur chenilles. — Collection Parthénope Éditions Biotope, Mèze, France 448 pp.

Larsen T.B. 1974. Butterflies of Lebanon. — National Council for Scientific Research Beirut: Lebanon xv + 256 pp. 16 pls.

Larsen T.B. 1980. The butterflies of Dhofar and their zoogeographic distribution. — Journal Oman Studies Special Report 2: 153–186.

Larsen T.B. 1982a. Gegenes pumilio Hoffmansegg 1804; a review with cytological evidence that two species are involved (Hesperiidae). — Nota Lepidopterologica 5: 103–110.

Larsen T.B. 1982b. The butterflies of the Yemen Arab Republic. With a review of species in the Charaxes viola-group from Arabia and East Africa by A.H.B. Rydon. — Biologiske Skrifter Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab 23: 187.

Larsen T.B. 1983. Insects of Saudi Arabia. Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera (A monograph of the butterflies of the Arabian Peninsula). — Fauna of Saudi Arabia 5: 333–478.

Larsen T.B. 1984. Butterflies of Saudi Arabia and its neighbours. — Stacey International London UK 160 pp. 23 pls.

Larsen T.B. 1990. The Butterflies of Egypt. — Apollo Books Stenstrup Denmark 112 pp. 8 pls.

Larsen T.B. 1991. The Butterflies of Kenya. — Oxford University Press Oxford UK xxii + 490 pp. 64 pls.

Larsen T.B. 2004. Butterflies of Bangladesh — an annotated checklist. — IUCN Bangladesh 158 pp. 13 pls.

Larsen T.B. 2005. Butterflies of West Africa. — Apollo Books Stenstrup Denmark 595 pp. 125 pls.

Larsen T.B. & K. Larsen 1980. Butterflies of Oman. — Bartholomew Books Edinburgh UK.Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae secundum Classes Ordines Genera Species cum characteribus differentiis synonymis locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima reformata. 1 (Animalia). — Laurentii Salvii Holmiae [Sweden].

Linnaeus C. 1764. Museum Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae Suecorum. Insecta & Conchilia. — Laur. Salvius, Stockholm, Sweden 720 pp.

Linnaeus C. 1767. Systema naturae. Editio XII. — Laur. Salvius Stockholm, Sweden, Pars II: 5331328.

Lorkovic´ Z. 1971. Gegenes nostrodamus F. and G. pumilio Hffgg. on the eastern Adriatic coast. — Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica 7: 56.

Makris C. 2003. Butterflies of Cyprus. — Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation Nikosia Cyprus 329 pp. 53 pls.

Nazari V. 2003. Butterflies of Iran. — National Museum of Natural History Teheran 400 pp. 74 pls.

Pamperis L.N. 2009. The butterflies of Greece 2nd ed. — Editions Pamperis, AthensGreece 766 pp.

Plötz C. 1884. Die Hesperiinen-Gattung Thymelicus Hüb. und ihre Arten. — Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 31: 284–290.

Pringle E.L.L. G.A. Henning & J.B. Ball (Eds) 1994. Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa 2nd ed. — Struik Winchester Cape Town South Africa 800 pp.

Rebel H. 1907. Lepidopteren aus Südarabien und von der Insel Sokotra. — Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe 71/2: 1–100.

Rebel H. & Zerny H. 1931. Die Lepidopterenfauna Albaniens (mit Berücksichtigung der Nachbargebiete). — Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 103: 37–161.

Roberts T.J. 2001. The Butterflies of Pakistan. — Oxford University Press Karachi Pakistan xxiv + 200 pp.

Sakai S. 1981. Butterflies of Afghanistan. — Koudansha Tokyo Japan 272 pp. 48 pls. [in Japanese]

Schaider P. & Jakšic´ P. 1989. Die Tagfalter von jugoslawisch Mazedonien (Rhopalocera und Hesperidae). — Selbstverlag Paul Schaider München Germany 82 pp. 46 pls 199 distribution maps.

Tennent J. 1996. The Butterflies of Morocco Algeria and Tunisia. — Gem Publishing Company Wallingford UK xxxvi + 217 pp.

Thurner J. 1964. Die Lepidopterenfauna Jugoslavisch Mazedoniens. 1. Rhopalocera Grypocera und Noctuidae. — Prirodonaucen Muzej Scopje 158 pp.

Tshikolovets V.V. 1998. The Butterflies of Turkmenistan. — Konvoj Ltd Brno Czech Republic 237 pp. xxxiv pls.

Tshikolovets V.V. 2000. The Butterflies of Uzbekistan. — Konvoj Ltd Brno Czech Republic 400 pp. xliii pls.

Tshikolovets V.V. 2003. The Butterflies of Tajikistan. — Konvoj Ltd Brno Czech Republic 500 pp. 3 + lxxvii pls.

Tshikolovets V.V. 2005. The Butterflies of Kyrgyzstan. — Tshikolovets Publications Pardubice Czech Republic 511 pp. pls 4 + cviii pls.

Tshikolovets V.V. 2011. Butterflies of Europe and the Mediterranean area. — Tshikolovets Publications Pardubice Czech Republic 544 pp.

Tshikolovets V.V. Naderi A. & Eckweiler W. 2014. The Butterflies of Iran and Iraq. — Tshikolovets Publications Pardubice Czech Republic 366 pp. 7 + lxv pls.

Vande weghe G.R. 2010. Papillons du Gabon. — Wildlife Conservation Society Libreville 424 pp. 132 pls.

Verovnik R. & Popovic´ M. 2013. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea). — ZooKeys 323: 75–89.

Verity R. 1940. Le Farfalle Diurne d’ltalia Vol. 1 Considerazioni generali. Superfamiglia Hesperides. — Marzocco Firenze Italy xxxiv + 131 pp. frontispiece + ii + 4 pls.

Wallengren H.D.J. 1857. Kafferlandets Tag-Fjärilar insamlade aren 1838–1845 af J.A. Wahlberg. – Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar B2(4): 555.

Warren A.D. Ogawa J.R. & Brower A.V.Z. 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. — Systematic Entomology 34: 467–523.

Watson E.Y. 1893. A proposed classification of the Hesperiidae with a revision of the genera. — Proceedings Zoological Society London 1893: 3–132 pls I–III.

Wiltshire E.P. 1957. The Lepidoptera of Iraq. — Nicholas Kaye Ltd London UK 162 pp. xvii pls.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Gegenes pumilio, type species of Gegenes Hübner, 1819. SW Turkey, Bodrum, 18.iv.2016, R. de Jong.

  • View in gallery

    Upper (even numbers) and under sides (odd numbers) of Gegenes species. — 2, 3, G. pumilio pumilio, male, Italy, Lazio, Sperlonga, 4.x.1975, leg. T. Racheli; 4, 5, G. pumilio pumilio, female, Italy, Formia, Monti Aurunci, 16–30.x.1910; 6, 7, G. pumilio gambica, male, Madagascar, Ft. Dauphin, 14.iv.1952, leg. E.W. Diehl; 8, 9, G. pumilio pumilio, female, Pakistan, Rawalpindi, 19–20.vi.1981, leg. W.L. Blom; 10, 11, G. nostrodamus, male, Greece, Ahaía, Río (Pátra), 18.vii.1983, leg. A. Riemis; 12, 13, G. nostrodamus, female, Spain, Granada, Salobrena del Mar, 9.vi.1973, leg. J.C. Weiss; 14, 15, G. nostrodamus, male, Iran, Isfahan, Yazdabad, 12–13.v.1977, leg. W.L. Blom; 16, 17, G. nostrodamus, male, Sudan, W Medani, 1.xii.1981, leg. J.H. Lourens. All figures natural size.

  • View in gallery

    Male genitalia of Gegenes pumilio gambica. Left to right, upper part: inside and outside of right valva saccus, underside and upper side of tegumen + uncus; lower part: lateral view and dorsal view of aedeagus, right lateral view of tegumen + uncus. — 18, Tchad, Moundou, Bebedjia, 12.ix.1970, leg. J.H. Lourens, prep. no. 5349; 19, Madagascar, Ft Dauphin, 14.iv.1952, leg. E.W. Diehl, prep. no. 5346.

  • View in gallery

    Gegenes pumilio pumilio, male genitalia, variation in dentation of valva. — 20, Tunisia, Tabarka, 17.iv.1990, prep. no. 3001; 21, France, Cannes, La Boca, 30.viii.1945, prep. no. 2999; 22, Italy, Messina, Isole Lipari, 12.viii.1991, prep. no. 3000; 23, Spain, Mallorca, Sta Marico, 15.vii.1982, prep. no. 2998. All in coll. Coutsis.

  • View in gallery

    Female genitalia of Gegenes. — 24, 25, G. pumilio: 24, Greece, Sími Island, 24.iv.2010; 25, Greece, Spétses Island, 24.ix.1979; 26, 27, G. nostrodamus: 26, Greece, Spétses Island, 10.ix.2001; 27, Greece, Attikí, Ekáli, 25.viii.1963. All in coll. Coutsis.

  • View in gallery

    Lorkovic´ character. — 28, G. pumilio (detail of Fig 5); 29, G. nostrodamus (detail of Fig 13).

  • View in gallery

    Gegenes nostrodamus, male genitalia; Greece, Kríti, nr Haniá, 16.iv.1990, leg. et coll. A. Olivier, prep. no. 2016. Inside and outside of right valva, upper side tegumen + uncus, left lateral view of tegumen + uncus, ventral view of top of aedeagus, lateral view of complete aedeagus.

  • View in gallery

    Gegenes nostrodamus, male genitalia, variation in dentation of valva. — 31, Spain, Nerja Malaga, 13-23.v.1990, prep. No. 2989; 32, Israel, Ein Gedi, 12.iv.1996, prep. No. 2996; 33, Italy, Sicily, Monti Le Madonie, Palermo, 16.vii.1991, prep. No. 2990; 34, Morocco, Taroudannt, 4.iv.1989, prep. No. 2992. All in coll. Coutsis.

  • View in gallery

    Upper (odd numbers) and under sides (even numbers) of Afrogegenes species. — 35, 36, A. letterstedti, male, Kenya, Maralal, 31.x–6.xi.1975, leg. R. de Jong; 37, 38, A. letterstedti, female, Ethiopia, Jimma, 16–24.xi.1969, leg. R.H. Cobben; 39, 40, A. letterstedti, male, Swaziland, Matsapha, 30.v.1991, leg. J.A.W. Lucas; 41, 42, A. letterstedti, female, Swaziland, Matsapha, 30.v.1991, leg. J.A.W. Lucas; 43, 44, A. hottentota, male, Cameroun, Kribi, 11.vii.1974, leg. J.A.W. Lucas; 45, 46, A. hottentota, female, Cameroun, Kribi, 11.vii.1974, leg. J.A.W. Lucas; 47, 48, A. ocra, male, S Africa, Port Elizabeth, 12.xi.1938, leg. Clarck; 49, 50, A. ocra, male, S Africa, Cape Town, 13.x.1966, leg. B. Stuart. All figures natural size.

  • View in gallery

    Male genitalia of Afrogegenes letterstedti. Left to right, upper part: inside and outside of right valve, saccus, underside and upper side of tegumen + uncus; lower part: lateral view and dorsal view of aedeagus, right lateral view of tegumen + uncus. — 51, Kenya, Thika, Fourteen Falls, 12.v.1974, leg. J.H. Lourens, prep. no. 5342; 52, Swaziland, Simunye Country Club, 1.vi.1991, leg. J.A.W. Lucas, prep. no. 5348.

  • View in gallery

    Ventral view of female genitalia of Afrogegenes letterstedti or hottentota. — 53–58, type A: 53, Swaziland, Manzini, 7.v.1991, leg. J.A.W. Lucas, prep. no. 5350; 54, Kenya, Taita Distr., Wundanyi, 16–17.x.1974, leg. R. de Jong, prep. no. 5355; 55, Tanzania, Mufindi, Lugoda, 14.viii.1982, leg. T.C.E. Congdon, prep. no. 5354; 56, Swaziland, Manzini, 29.v.1991, leg. J.A.W. Lucas, prep. no. 5361 (lamella antevaginalis only); 57, Kenya, Mt Kenya, Naro Moru Route, 26.i.1971, leg. J.H. Lourens, prep. no. 5363 (lamella antevaginalis only); 58, S Africa, Umfolozi, 22.ii.1977, leg. A.T. Gay, prep. no. 5366 (lamella antevaginalis only). 59–64, type B: 59, Kenya, Kakamega Forest, 26–28.x.1974, leg. R. de Jong, prep. no. 5353; 60, Kenya, Maralal, 31.x–6.xi.1978, leg. R. de Jong, prep. no. 5351; 61, S Africa, Natal, Monaux Sources, 22.v.1991, leg. J.A.W. Lucas, prep. no. 5352; 62, Kenya, Naro Moru, 27–28.xi.1978, leg. R. de Jong, prep. no. 5365 (lamella antevaginalis only); 63, Yemen, El Udayn, 2.x.1988, prep. no. 5364 (lamella antevaginalis only); 64, Swaziland, Manzini, 20.v.1991, leg. J.A.W. Lucas, prep. no. 5362 (lamella antevaginalis only). For an explanation of type A and type B, see text.

  • View in gallery

    Male genitalia of Afrogegenes hottentota. Left to right, upper part: inside and outside of right valve, saccus, underside and upper side of tegumen + uncus; lower part: lateral view and dorsal view of aedeagus, right lateral view of tegumen + uncus. — 65, Kenya, Kakamega Forest, 26–28.x.1974, leg. R. de Jong, prep. no. 5341; 66, Swaziland, Matsapha, Figueredo Dam, 30.v.1991, leg. J.A.W. Lucas, prep. no. 5344.

  • View in gallery

    Male genitalia of Afrogegenes ocra. Left to right, upper part: inside and outside of right valve, saccus, underside and upper side of tegumen + uncus; lower part: lateral view and dorsal view of aedeagus, right lateral view of tegumen + uncus. S Africa, Port Elizabeth, Summerstand, 9.xi.1966, leg. B. Stuart, prep. no. 5367.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 32 32 17
Full Text Views 59 59 34
PDF Downloads 8 8 7
EPUB Downloads 18 18 11