Madagopsina gen. n. and Gracilopsina gen. n. (Diptera: Diopsidae) from Madagascar with description of four new species

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Madagopsina gen. n. and Gracilopsina gen. n. are described as endemic Diopsidae taxa for Madagascar. Three Madagascan Diopsidae, earlier alternately placed in Diopsis, Eurydiopsis or Cyrtodiopsis (also as Teleopsis), are now referred to Madagopsina gen. n., while two of these three species proved to be conspecific. This gives rise to Madagopsina apollo (Brunetti) comb. n. and Madagopsina apographica (Séguy) comb. n. = anjahanaribei (Vanschuytbroeck) syn. n. The two species are redescribed. Madagopsina apographica proved to have a mixed type series. Three new species are allocated to the genus as Madagopsina freidbergi sp. n., Madagopsina parvapollina sp. n. and Madagopsina tschirnhausi sp. n. For Eurydiopsis vadoni Vanschuytbroeck (later also placed in Cyrtodiopsis and Teleopsis) the genus Gracilopsina gen. n. is erected, leading to Gracilopsina vadoni (Vanschuytbroeck) comb. n. Gracilopsina vadoni is redescribed and is shown to have a mixed type series. One new species is allocated to the genus as Gracilopsina sinespina sp. n. A key is presented to the two genera and seven species. Madagascar now counts five Diopsidae genera and 12 species, of which two genera and 11 species are endemic. The genus Cladodiopsis is no longer an endemic Madagascar genus as it also occurs in the Comoros. The phylogenetic position of Madagopsina gen. n. is discussed based on molecular data. The intra- and intergeneric phylogeny of both new genera is discussed based on morphology and geometric morphometrics analyses of wing shape. Data are presented on sexual dimorphism with respect to eye span in the genera. The resulting allometric lines (eye span/body length) are also included in the phylogenetic analysis. The allometric lines for the closely related M. parvapollina sp. n., and the much larger M. apollo are compared and discussed. Allometric slopes and intercepts are identical for females of both species, while in males allometric slopes are identical, but intercepts differ considerably. An identical phenomenon was found in two closely related East African Diopsis species with a small and a large species. Various morphological characters, including eggs, are discussed. The importance of intersternite 1–2 and synsternum 7+8 as differential characters is indicated.

Tijdschrift voor Entomologie

A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Entomology since 1857

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Figures

  • Wing of Madagopsina parvapollina sp. n., ♀, Ambohitra, 9.iv.1991, showing the 17 landmarks used.

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  • — 2, pair of Madagopsina apollo in in-copula position, Tampolo, Masoala NP, 25.xi.2011, photograph by René Krekels; 3, ♀ Gracilopsina sinespina sp. n. on Pandanus leaf, Perinet, 26.x.2014, photograph by Steve Marshall.

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  • Prosterna — 4, Madagopsina apollo, ♂, Ambohitra, 9–4.iv.1991, basiliform prosternum; 5, Gracilopsina vadoni, paratype ♂, Fampanambo, 1962, precoxal bridge. Scales 0.2 mm.

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  • Madagopsina apographica. — 15, ♂ postabdomen, Ranomafana, 20–29.x.2007; 16, ♀ habitus, Ranomafana, 28.x.2007; 17, ♂ central head, Andasibe, 31.x–4.xi.2007; 18, ♀ dorsal abdomen, Ranomafana, 27.iv.1998; 19, ♂ dorsal thorax, Ranomafana, 15–17.i.2007. Scale 15 0.2 mm; scales 16–19 0.5 mm.

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  • Madagopsina apographica, ♀, Ranomafana N.P., Talatakely Area, 13.iv.1998. — 21, ventral view of basal section of abdomen; 22, subanal plate; 23, ventral view of distal section of abdomen; 24, dorsal view of terga 8 & 10 and cerci; 25, spermathecae; 26, sclerotised ring of ventral vagina wall. Scales 21 & 23 0.5 mm; other scales 0.1 mm.

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  • Madagopsina apollo, ♂, Ambohitra, Joffreville, 9–12.iv.1991. — 48, lateral view of phallapodeme and aedeagus; 49, ventral view of basal section of abdomen; 50, ventral view of sterna 5–6; 51, posterior view of epandrium with surstyli and cerci; 52, ventral view of synsternum 7+8; 53, ejaculatory apodeme and sac; 54, inner view of surstylus; 55, lateral view of hypandrial clasper. Scales 48–52 0.5 mm; scales 53–55 0.1 mm.

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  • Gracilopsina sinespina sp.n., ♂, Perinet, 25.x.2014, drawing made after unsharp photograph. As it is the only picture of a ♂ it gives unique information, especially on the eye span.

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  • Madagopsina gen. n. dorsal view of wings. 6–7, M. apollo species-group, 8–10, M. apographica species-group — 6, M. apollo, ♂, Ambohitra, 9–12.iv.1991; 7, M. parvapollina sp. n., ♀ paratype, Ankarana 4–6.i.2007; 8, M. apographica, ♀, Fianarantsoa, 13.iv.1998; 9, M. freidbergi sp. n., ♀ paratype, Vohimana, 21.viii.2012; 10, M. tschirnhausi sp. n., holotype, ♂, Mount Ambre, 5.ix.2004. Scales 0.5 mm.

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  • Gracilopsina gen. n. dorsal view of wings. — 11, G. sinespina sp. n., holotype ♀, Tsaramamiandro, 1950; 12, G. vadoni, ♂ paratype, Fampanambo, 1962. Scales 0.5 mm.

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  • Madagopsina freidbergi sp. n., paratypes, Andasibe, 31.x–4.xi.2007. — 56, ♀ head, dorsal view; 57, ♂ habitus, lateral view; 58, ♂ habitus, dorsal view; 59, ♂ thorax, dorsal view; 60, ♂ abdomen, dorsal view. Scales 0.5 mm.

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  • Madagopsina parvapollina sp. n., paratypes. — 75, ♀, Ambohitra, 9–12.iv.1991, head, anterior view; 76, ♂, Ambohitra, 9–12.iv.1991, central head, anterior view; 77, ♀, Ambohitra, 9–12.iv.1991, habitus, lateral view; 78, ♂, P.N. Namoroka, 4–8.xi.2002, habitus, dorsal view; 79, ♀, R. S. d’Ankarana, 4–6.i.2007, thorax, dorsal view. Scales 0.5 mm.

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  • Gracilopsina sinespina sp. n., holotype ♀, Tsaramamiandro, xi.1950. — 116, head, anterior view; 117, thorax, lateral view; 118, abdomen, dorsal view (inset highlights the pollinosity pattern); 119, habitus, dorsal view; 120, thorax, dorsal view. Scales 0.5 mm.

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  • Gracilopsina vadoni. — 127, paratype ♂, Fampanambo, 1962, head, anterior view; 128, paratype ♂, Fampanambo, vii.1959, central head, anterior view; 129, paratype ♂, Fampanambo, 1962, habitus, dorsal view; 130, ♀, Ambodivoangy, 16–20.iii.1958, head and thorax, lateral view; 131, ♀, Ambodivoangy, 16–20.iii.1958, thorax, dorsal view; 132, paratype ♂, Fampanambo, vii.1959, abdomen, dorsolateral view (inset highlights the pollinosity pattern). Scale 128 0.2 mm; other scales 1.0 mm.

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  • Gracilopsina vadoni, ♀ paratype, Ambodivoangy, 16–20.iii.1958. — 134, ventral view of first three segments of abdomen; 135, ventral view of distal section of abdomen; 136, dorsal view of terga 8 & 10 and cerci; 137, sclerotised ring of ventral vagina wall; 138, subanal plate; 139, spermathecae. Scales 134, 135 0.5 mm; other scales 0.1 mm.

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  • Madagopsina parvapollina sp. n., ♂ paratype, Ambohitra, Joffreville, 9–12.iv.1991. — 85, lateral view of phallapodeme and aedeagus; 86, ventral view of sternum 5 with typical comb; 87, ventral view of synsternum 7+8; 88, ejaculatory apodeme and sac; 89, posterior view of epandrium with surstyli and cerci; 90, lateral view of hypandrial clasper; 91, inner view of surstylus. Scales 85–87 0.5 mm; scales 88–91 0.1 mm.

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  • Madagopsina parvapollina sp. n., ♂ paratype, P.N. Namoroka, 4–8.xi.2002, postabdomen. — 92, ventrolateral view; 93, dorsolateral view. Scales 0.2 mm.

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  • Madagascar Diopsidae, dorsal view of wings. — 189, Sphyracephala beccarii, ♀, Antsiranana Reserve, 4.i.2007; 190, Cladodiopsis leptophylla, ♀, Ranomafana NP, 13.iv.1998; 191, C. seyrigi, ♀, Ranomafana NP, 18.x.2014; 192, C. sicardi, ♀, Ambohitra, 9.iv.1991; 193, Diopsis nigrosicus, ♀, Isalo NP, 14.vi.2003. Scales 0.5 mm.

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  • Madagascar Diopsidae, dorsal view of habitus. — 194, Sphyracephala beccarii, ♀, Isaka Forest, 23.x.2007; 195, Cladodiopsis leptophylla, ♀, Mont d’Ambre, 25.i.2001; 196, C. seyrigi, ♀, Ranomafana NP, 17.x.2014 (dorsolateral view, photograph Steve Marshall); 197, C. sicardi, ♀, Ambohitra, 9.iv.1991; 198, Diopsis nigrosicus, ♂, Isalo NP, 14.vi.2003. Scales 0.5 mm.

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  • Madagascar Diopsidae, anterior view of head. — 199, Sphyracephala beccarii, ♀, Isaka Forest, 23.x.2007; 200, Cladodiopsis leptophylla, ♂, Ranomafana NP, 7.iv.1998; 201, C. seyrigi, ♂, Perinet, 16.iv.1991; 202, C. sicardi, ♂, Ambohitra, 9.iv.1991 (note absence of IVS! Séguy indicated an IVS in his drawing, but we never saw an IVS, also not in the “type”); 203, Diopsis nigrosicus, ♂, Isalo NP, 14.vi.2003. Scales 0.5 mm.

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  • Madagopsina apographica. — 13, Ranomafana, 15.x.2014, photograph by Steve Marshall; 14, Madagascar, 14.i.2014, photograph by Steve Gaimari.

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  • Madagopsina apographica, eye span plotted against body length.

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  • Madagopsina apographica, ♀, Ranomafana N.P., Talatakely Area, 13.iv.1998, abdominal apex evaginated into copulatory position. The sclerotised ring of the ventral vagina wall is relatively very small. Scale 0.1 mm.

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  • Madagopsina apographica, ♂, Ranomafana N.P., Talatakely Area, 9.iv.1998. — 28, lateral view of phallapodeme, epandrium, cerci, hypandrial clasper and surstylus; 29, ventral view of sterna 4–6; 30, lateral view of phallapodeme and aedeagus; 31, ventral view of synsternum 7+8; 32, posterior view of epandrium with surstyli and cerci; 33, ejaculatory apodeme and sac; 34, inner view of surstylus. Scales 28–30 0.5 mm; scales 31–34 0.1 mm.

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  • Distribution maps. — 35, Madagopsina apographica and M. tschirnhausi sp. n.; 36, M. apollo, M. parvapollina sp. n. and M. freidbergi sp. n.; 37, Gracilopsina sinespina sp. n. and G. vadoni.

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  • Principal component analysis of wing venation morphometry for the two species of Gracilopsina and five species of Madagopsina. — 151, biplot of the first two PCA axes; 152, percentage of explained variance for each PCA axis and wing deformation along the first two PCA axes (inset), with dotted red and continuous lines corresponding to maximal and minimal deformations along the first two PCA axes, respectively.

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  • Cluster dendrograms for the euclidian distance in wing morphometry PCA. — 153, complete clustering method; 154, average clustering method. Branch labels give the approximately unbiased p-value (AU) and bootstrap probability (BP) values (%).

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  • Eye span plotted against body length for females of the two Gracilopsina species (G. sinespina sp. n. and G. vadoni) and the five Madagopsina species (M. apollo, M. parvapollina sp. n., M. apographica, M. freidbergi sp. n. and M. tschirnhausi sp. n.). For G. sinespina sp. n. only two data points were available.

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  • Eggs of Madagopsina gen. n. and Gracilopsina gen. n.; 158–160, whole eggs, 161–164, details of eggs. — 158, M. apographica, outline; 159, M. freidbergi sp. n.; 160, G. sinespina sp. n.; 161, M. apographica; 162, M. freidbergi sp. n.; 163, G. sinespina sp. n.; 164, G. vadoni. Scales 158–160 0.5 mm (all drawn to the same scale to illustrate the remarkable difference in size); scales 161–164 0.1 mm.

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  • Antennae. — 165, Madagopsina apollo; 166, M. parvapollina sp. n.; 167, M. apographica; 168, M. freidbergi sp. n.; 169, M. tschirnhausi sp. n.; 170, Gracilopsina vadoni. Scales 0.1 mm.

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  • Basal section of arista. — 171, Madagopsina apollo; 172, M. parvapollina sp. n.; 173, M. apographica; 174, M. freidbergi sp. n.; 175, M. tschirnhausi sp. n.; 176, Gracilopsina vadoni. Scales 0.1 mm.

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  • Inner view (more or less) of hypandrial claspers. — 177, Gracilopsina vadoni; 178, Madagopsina apollo; 179 M. parvapollina sp. n.; 180, M. apographica; 181, M. freidbergi sp. n.; 182, M. tschirnhausi sp. n. Scale 0.1 mm (all drawn to the same scale to illustrate the remarkable differences in size).

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  • Posterior view of surstyli. — 183, Gracilopsina vadoni; 184, Madagopsina apographica; 185, M. apollo; 186, M. freidbergi sp. n.; 187, M. parvapollina sp. n.; 188, M. tschirnhausi sp. n. Scale 0.1 mm (all drawn to the same scale).

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  • Madagopsina apollo ♂ Ambohitra, 9–12.iv.1991. — 38, frons and face; 39, habitus, lateral view; 40, habitus, dorsal view; 41, thorax, dorsal view. Scale 38 0.2 mm; scales 39–41 1.0 mm.

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  • Madagopsina apollo and M. parvapollina sp. n., eye span plotted against body length.

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  • Madagopsina apollo, ♀ Ambohitra, Joffreville, 9–12.iv.1991. — 43, ventral view of distal section of abdomen; 44, dorsal view of terga 8 & 10 and cerci; 45, subanal plate; 46, spermathecae; 47, sclerotised ring of ventral vagina wall. Scales 43–44 0.5 mm; scales 45–47 0.1 mm.

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  • Dorsal view of habitus of males of Madagopsina parvapollina sp. n. (left) and M. apollo showing the remarkable difference in size.

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  • Madagopsina apollo, eye span plot against wing length and eye span plotted against body length.

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  • Madagopsina freidbergi sp. n, eye span plotted against body length.

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  • Madagopsina freidbergi sp. n., ♀ paratype, Réserve de Vohimana, 21.viii.2012. — 62, ventral view of distal section of abdomen; 63, dorsal view of terga 8 & 10 and cerci; 64, subanal plate; 65, spermathecae; 66, sclerotised ring of ventral vagina wall. Scale 62 0.5 mm; scales 63–66 0.1 mm.

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  • Madagopsina freidbergi sp. n., ♂ paratype, Perinet, Andasibe, 16–17.iv.1991. — 67, lateral view of phallapodeme and aedeagus; 68, ventral view of sterna 4–6; 69, tip of aedeagus; 70, ventral view of synsternum 7+8; 71, posterior view of epandrium with surstyli and cerci; 72, ejaculatory apodeme and sac; 73, inner view of surstylus. Scales 67–68, 70 0.5 mm; other scales 0.1 mm.

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  • Madagopsina freidbergi sp. n., ♂ paratype, Perinet, Andasibe, 16–17.iv.1991, lateral view of abdominal apex with epandrium, surstylus and hypandrial clasper. Scale 0.1 mm.

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  • Phylogenetic placement of Madagopsina gen. n. in the Diopsidae based on three different sets of molecular markers. — 148, analysis of both mitochondrial gene regions (12S, 16S and COII) and nuclear gene regions (Ef-1α and 28S); 149, nuclear gene regions only; 150, mitochondrial gene regions only. Numbers denote Bayesian posterior probability, followed by maximum likelihood bootstrap support. These graphs are condensed versions of graphs later to be reported upon by F.A.A. Feijen et al.

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  • Madagopsina parvapollina sp. n., ♀ paratype, Ambohitra, Joffreville, 9–12.iv.1991. — 80, ventral view of distal section of abdomen; 81, dorsal view of terga 8 & 10 and cerci; 82, subanal plate; 83, spermathecae and base of spermathecal ducts; 84, sclerotised ring of ventral vagina wall. Scale 80 0.5 mm; scales 81–84 0.1 mm.

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  • Madagopsina tschirnhausi sp. n. — 94, ♀ paratype, Montagne d’Ambre, 12.v.1958, central head, anterior view; 95, holotype ♂, Mount Ambre north, 5.ix.2004, head, anterior view; 96, ♀ paratype, Montagne d’Ambre, i.1934, head, anterior view; 97, holotype, thorax, dorsal view; 98, holotype, habitus, lateral view. Scales 94, 97 0.2 mm; other scales 1.0 mm

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  • Madagopsina tschirnhausi sp. n. — 99, ♀ paratype, Montagne d’Ambre, 12.v.1958, habitus, dorsal view; 100, ♂ paratype, Montagne d’Ambre, 26.v.1958, abdomen, lateral view. Scales 1.0 mm.

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  • Madagopsina tschirnhausi sp. n., eye span plotted against body length.

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  • Madagopsina tschirnhausi sp. n., ♀ paratype, Montagne d’Ambre, i.1934. — 102, ventral view of first five segments of abdomen; 103, ventral view of distal section of abdomen; 104, dorsal view of terga 8 & 10 and cerci; 105, subanal plate; 106, spermathecae; 107, sclerotised ring of ventral vagina wall. Scales 102, 103 0.5 mm; scales 104–107 0.1 mm.

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  • Madagopsina tschirnhausi sp. n., holotype, ♂, Mount Ambre north, 5.ix.2004. — 108, lateral view of phallapodeme; 109, ventral view of synsternum 7+8; 110, ejaculatory apodeme and sac; 111, posterior view of epandrium with surstyli and cerci; 112, lateral view of hypandrial clasper; 113, detail of long and short setulae on hypandrial clasper; 114, inner view of surstylus. Scales 108,109, 111 0.5 mm; other scales 0.1 mm.

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  • Gracilopsina sinespina sp. n., holotype, ♀, Tsaramamiandro, xi.1950. — 121, ventral view of first five segments of abdomen; 122, ventral view of distal section of abdomen; 123, dorsal view of terga 8 & 10 and cerci; 124, sclerotised ring of ventral vagina wall; 125, subanal plate; 126, spermathecae. Scales 121, 122 0.5 mm; scales 123–126 0.1 mm.

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  • Gracilopsina vadoni, eye span plotted against body length.

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  • Gracilopsina vadoni, ♂ paratype, Fampanambo, 0.vii.1959. — 140, lateral view of phallapodeme; 141, lateral view of aedeagus (less basiphallus); 142, ventral view of sterna 5–6 and synsternum 7+8; 143, ventral view of synsternum 7+8; 144, hypandrial clasper; 145, posterior view of epandrium with surstyli and cerci; 146, ejaculatory apodeme and sac; 147, inner view of surstylus. Scales 140, 142 0.5 mm; other scales 0.1 mm.

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