Early Supposition Theory II

in Vivarium
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Abstract

In 1981 I published an article called Early Supposition Theory. Then as now, the magisterial work on the subject was L.M. de Rijk’s Logica Modernorum and then as now any discussion of the topic would have to rely to a great extent on the texts published there. This means that many of the problems that existed then still remain, but a couple of important new studies and several new texts have been published in the meantime, so it may be time to try to take stock of the situation. I will first look at the origin of the term suppositio and then at the chronology of our source texts.

Vivarium

A Journal for Medieval and Early-Modern Philosophy and Intellectual Life

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References

BraakhuisH.A.G.De 13de eeuwse tractaten over syncategorematische termen: Inleidende studie en uitgave van Nicolaas van Parijs’ Sincategoreumata19792 vols(Dissertation Leiden, Nijmegen 1979)

EbbesenS., '‘Early Supposition Theory (12th-13th cent.)’' (1981) 3 Histoire épistémologie langage: 35-48 (repr. in Ebbesen (2009)).

EbbesenS., 'The Semantics of the Trinity according to Stephen Langton and Andrew Sunesen' (1987) Gilbert de Poitiers et ses contemporains aux origines de la Logica Modernorum Actes du septième symposium européen d’histoire de la logique et de la sémantique médiévales, Poitiers 17-22 Juin 1985 (Napoli 1987, 401-435).

EbbesenS., '‘Medieval Latin Glosses and Commentaries on Aristotelian Logical Texts of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’' (1993b) Glosses and Commentaries on Aristoteian Logical Texts. The Syriac, Arabic and medieval Latin Traditions (The Warburg Institute, University of London, London 1993, 129-177).

EbbesenS., '‘Texts on Equivocation’' (1997) 67 Cahiers de l’institut du moyen âge grec et latin: 127-199 (1997).

EbbesenS., (2008) Greek-Latin Philosophical Interaction: Collected Essays of Sten Ebbesen I (Aldershot 2008).

EbbesenS., (2009) Topics in Latin Philosophy from the 12th-14th centuries: Collected Essays of Sten Ebbesen II (Aldershot 2009).

EbbesenS.PinborgJ., '‘Studies in the Logical Writings Attributed to Boethius de Dacia’' (1970) 3 Cahiers de l’institut du moye-âge grec et latin: 1-54 (1970).

EbbesenS.IwakumaY., '‘Fallaciae Lemovicenses’' (1993) 63 Cahiers de l’institut du moyen âge grec et latin: 3-42 (1993).

IwakumaY., '‘The Fallaciae and Loci of William de Montibus. An Edition’' (1993) 2 Journal of Fukui Prefectural University: 1-44 (1993).

KneepkensC.H., 'Suppositio and Supponere in 12th-Century Grammar’' (1987) Gilbert de Poitiers et ses contemporains aux origines de la Logica Modernorum Actes du septième symposium européen d’histoire de la logique et de la sémantique médiévales, Poitiers 17-22 Juin 1985 (Napoli 1987, 325-351).

de LiberaA., '‘The Oxford and Paris Traditions in Logic’' (1982) The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Disintegration of Scholasticism 1100-1600 (Cambridge-London-New York-New Rochelle-Melbourne-Sydney 1982, 174-187).

de LiberaA., '‘Logique et théologie dans la Summa Quoniam homines d’Alain de Lille’' (1987) Gilbert de Poitiers et ses contemporains aux origines de la Logica Modernorum Actes du septième symposium européen d’histoire de la logique et de la sémantique médiévales, Poitiers 17-22 Juin 1985 (Napoli 1987, 437-469).

NielsenL.O., 'Theology and Philosophy in the Twelfth Century' (1982) A Study of Gilbert Porreta’s Thinking and the Theological Expositions of the Doctrine of the Incarnation during the Period 1130-1180 (Acta Theologica Danica, 15; Leiden 1982).

d’ OrsA., '‘Petrus Hispanus O.P., Auctor Summularum’' (1997) 35 Vivarium: 21-71 (1997).

d’ OrsA., '‘Petrus Hispanus O.P., Auctor Summularum (II): Further Documents and Problems’' (2001) 39 Vivarium: 209-254 (2001).

d’ OrsA., '‘Petrus Hispanus, O.P., Auctor Summularum (III): “Petrus Alfonsi” or “Petrus Ferrandi”?’' (2003) 41 Vivarium: 249-303 (2003).

PinborgJ., '‘Review of L.M. de Rijk, Logica Modernorum II’' (1968) 6 Vivarium: 155-158 (1968).

PinborgJ., (1972) Logik und Semantik im Mittelalter. Ein Überblick mit einem Nachwort von H. Kohlenberger (Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1972).

de RijkL.M., 'Logica Modernorum' (1962-1967) A Contribution to the History of Early Terminist Logic. I. On the Twelfth Century Theories of Fallacy; II/1: The Origin and the Early Development of the Theory of Supposition II/2: Texts and Indices (Assen 1962-1967).

de RijkL.M., '‘On the Genuine Text of Peter of Spain’s Summule, part V. Some Anonymous Commentaries on The Summule Dating From The Thirteenth Century’' (1970) 8 Vivarium: 10-55 (1970).

de RijkL.M., '‘The Origins of the Theory of the Properties of Terms’' (1982) The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy. From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Desintegration of Scholasticism 1100-1600 (Cambridge-London-New York-New Rochelle-Melbourne-Sydney 1982, 161-173).

ValenteL., (2008) Logique et théologie. Les écoles parisiennes entre 1150 et 1220 (Sic et non; Paris 2008).

2)

See Kneepkens (1987), esp. pp. 341-342.

3)

Pinborg (1968) and (1972), 47-49. See also Nielsen (1982), 105.

4)

De Libera (1987), 455; Valente (2008), esp. 275 ff. See also Valente’s contribution to this volume.

6)

Cf. De Libera (1982b), 176.

15)

Ebbesen (1987). Pinborg (1968) had already pointed to Langton’s pupil, Andrew Sunesen, without, however, knowing that Andrew was dependent on Langton.

18)

De Libera (1984), 193, follows Chenu in assigning a date of about 1230, but this presupposes that John’s logical works were all written before he began to study theology. Heine Hansen, who is preparing an edition of John’s commentary on the Categories, has pointed out to me that the commentary contains a number of references to theological authors, which suggests it was composed after John had commenced his study of theology. Assuming that he continued to teach the arts during his first years as a student of theology, we gain a wider span of time within which his logical works may have been written, roughly 1231-1241.

24)

De Rijk (1970), 17-18.

25)

Ebbesen and Pinborg (1970), 44 n.

27)

D’Ors (1997), (2001), (2003).

28)

Iwakuma (1993), 1-4. In ms Cambridge, Jesus College Q.B.17, William’s Fallaciae occurs together with theological works by Willelmus de Montibus.

29)

Iwakuma (1993), 3.

32)

De Rijk (1982), 165.

36)

Braakhuis (1979), 1, 427, n. 12; Iwakuma (1993), 4, n. 16.

42)

Bos (2001), 6, proposes a date between 1200 and 1220, but I am afraid that is too early. There are references to the Posterior Analytics in II/1.1.1, 95, and II/1.1.5, 97; and to Physics II in III. 0, p. 134. In II/1.1, 85, we find ‘Nullus enim artifex probat sua principia’, which seems to indicate a date when both Posterior Analytics and Physics I were commonly read. Cf. Thomas Aquinas, In Sententiarum I, q. 1, a. 3: ‘sicut nec aliquis artifex potest probare sua principia’, Boethius of Dacia, Quaestiones super libros Physicorum ed. Sajó (1954). I. 12, 152-154 ‘Quaeritur utrum aliquis artifex possit probare sua principia si sibi negantur. [. . .] Item, nullus artifex potest probare aliquid contra illum qui nihil sibi concedit’. The debate in Boethius (and others from the second half of the century) is linked to Averroes’ discussion in his commentary on Physics I, comm. 8.

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