Ethnic/Immigrant Associations and Minorities’/Immigrants’ Voluntary Participation

in Voluntaristics Review
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



In today’s globalized world, migration has changed the social, cultural, political, and economic landscape of many countries. The influx of immigrants increases the cultural and ethnic diversity of host countries as well as the needs of social services in these countries (Gesthuizen, van der Meer, & Scheepers, 2009; Jenkins, 1988; Padilla, 1997). Ethnic associations, including mutual aid organizations, hometown associations, and various other types of ethnic and immigrant organizations, emerged to respond to the particular needs of specific immigrant communities (Smith et al., 1994, 1999). For countries with a tradition of civic participation, integrating immigrants into civic life becomes an important issue. Since immigrants, particularly newcomers, tend to involve themselves more in ethnic/immigrant organizations than in mainstream organizations in a host country (and they also engage more in informal volunteering and mutual help than their native-born counterparts), it is important to study ethnic/immigrant organizations and immigrants’ voluntary participation, including informal volunteering, which could help us better understand immigrants’ integration into the civic life of a host country.

This article reviews the literature on ethnic/immigrant associations and minorities’/immigrants’ voluntary participation in major developed countries in North America, Europe, and Oceania, including countries such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand, which have experienced a significant increase of immigrants or a surge of foreign-born population since World War ii, and particularly after the 1990s.

In terms of ethnic/immigrant associations, the author reviews the historical background of research in this area, the size and scope of ethnic/immigrant associations, the formation and development of ethnic/immigrant associations, the memberships, the financial well-being of these associations, the roles they play in helping immigrants adapt and acculturate into the host countries, and the classification of ethnic associations. Particular attention is given to immigrants’ mutual aid organizations, ethnic cultural organizations, ethnic-oriented religious organizations, and hometown associations. The characteristics of ethnic/immigrant associations vary by culture or ethnic groups and by the context of their host countries. The author reviews the English literature on ethnic/immigrant associations formed by people from various backgrounds, such as European, African, Latin American, and Asian immigrants/ethnic groups in the United States, as well as similar immigrant/ethnic groups in Western developed countries that have a large number of immigrants.

Research on immigrant voluntary participation tends to show that immigrants participate in or volunteer less for mainstream nonprofit organizations than native-borns (Sundeen, Garcia, & Wang, 2007). Some studies further examine the barriers for immigrants to participate in formal volunteering, such as language, cultural perception of volunteering, time constraints, lack of information or connection to organizations, and lack of transportation (i.e. Baer, 2008; Campbell & McLean, 2002; Scott et al., 2005). Others have also examined immigrants’ motivation to participate in formal volunteering, such as developing social networks, resume building, and so on (Handy & Greenspan, 2009). Several studies, however, find that after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, there is little or no difference between immigrants’ and non-immigrants’ likelihood of voluntary participation (Andersen & Milligan, 2011; Baer, 2008). In addition, studies show that ethnic minorities and immigrants may involve more in ethnic/immigrant associations or ethnic-oriented religious groups and engage in informal volunteering or mutual help (Smith et al., 1994, 1999). This study reviews the literature on both formal and informal volunteering of minorities and immigrants.

Ethnic-oriented religious associations play an important role in helping immigrants adapt to the new environment and providing a venue for voluntary participation (Handy & Greenspan, 2009; Wang & Handy, 2014). Studies of different religious organizations (such as Catholic vs. Protestant or Buddhist) show that the influences of religion on immigrant volunteering vary by the religious beliefs. The author reviews studies that examine the scope of religious organizations in a host country, the formation of ethnic-oriented religious organizations, their structures, and the roles of these religious organizations in helping immigrants integrate into the host country and encouraging ethnic groups’ and immigrants’ voluntary participation.

Immigrant youth have different patterns of voluntary participation from adult immigrants and their native counterparts. Those who moved to the host country at a younger age are more likely to adopt the civic culture of the host country and thus volunteer more (Kawashima-Ginsberg & Kirby, 2009). School is a main venue where immigrant youth are exposed to the civic culture (Ishizawa, 2015; Oesterle, Johnson, & Mortimer, 2004). This study reviews the literature on immigrant youths’ voluntary participation, including the factors that influence immigrant youths’ participation and the consequences of their participation.

Voluntaristics Review

Brill Research Perspectives



Agunias, D. R. & Newland, K. (2012). Developing a road map for engaging diasporas in development: A handbook for policymakers and practitioners in home and host countries. Geneva: International Organization for Migration and Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute.

Akcapar, S. K. (2009). Turkish associations in the United States: Towards building a transnational identity. Turkish Studies, 10, 165193.

Alarcón, R. (2002). The development of hometown associations in the United States and the use of social remittance in Mexico. In R. O. de la Garza & B. L. Lowell (Eds.), Sending money home: Hispanic remittances and community development (pp. 101124). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Alba, R. & Nee, V. (2003). Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Alcantara, R. R. (1981). Sakada: Filipino adaption in Hawaii. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, Inc.

Alesina, A. & La Ferrara, E. (2000). Participation in heterogeneous communities. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 887904.

Almirol, E. B. (1978). Filipino voluntary associations: Balancing social pressures and ethnic image. Ethnic Groups, 2, 7090.

Andersen, R., & Milligan, S. (2011). Immigration, ethnicity and voluntary association membership in Canada: Individual and contextual effects. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 29, 139154.

Anderson, R. T. & Anderson, G. (1962). Voluntary associations among Ukrainians in France. Anthropological Quarterly, 35, 158168.

Attwood, C., Singh, G., Prime, D., Creasey, R., & Others. (2003). 2001 Home office citizenship survey: People, families and communities. London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.

Babis, D. (2016). Understanding diversity in the phenomenon of immigrant organizations: A comprehensive framework. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 17, 355369.

Bacon, B. S., Yuen, C. L., & Korza, P. (1999). Animating democracy: The artistic imagination as a force in civic dialogue. Washington, D.C.: Americans for the Arts.

Bada, X. (2014). Mexican hometown associations in Chicagoacán: From local to transnational civic engagement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Baer, D. (2008). Community context and civic participation in immigrant communities: A multi-level study of 137 Canadian communities. Working Paper Series #08–03. Vancouver, British Columbia: Metropolis British Columbia.

Baer, H. A. & Singer, M. (1992). African-American religion in the twentieth century: Varieties of protest and accommodation. Nashville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.

Bankston, C. L., III & Zhou, M. (1995). Religious participation, ethnic identification, and adaption of Vietnamese adolescents in an immigrant community. The Sociological Quarterly, 36, 523535.

Bankston, C. L., III & Zhou, M. (2000). De facto congregationalism and socio-economic mobility in Laotian and Vietnamese immigrant communities: a study of religious institutions and economic change. Review of Religious Research, 41, 453470.

Basch, L. (1987). The Vicentians and Grenadians: The role of voluntary associations in immigrant adaption to New York City. In N. Foner (Ed.), New immigrants in New York (pp. 159194). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Batrouney, A. & Batrouney, T. (1985). The Lebanese in Australia. Melbourne: AE Press.

Bauder, H. (2006). Labor movement: How migration regulates labor markets. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Beito, D. T. (1990). Mutual aid for social welfare: The case of American fraternal societies. Critical Review, 4, 709736.

Beito, D. T. (2000). From mutual aid to the welfare state: Fraternal societies and social services, 1890–1967. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaption. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 568.

Bloemraad, I. (2005). The limits of de Tocqueville: How government facilitates organizational capacity in newcomer communities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31, 865887.

Bloemraad, I., Korteweg, A., & Yurdakul, G. (2008). Citizenship and immigration: Multiculturalism, assimilation, and challenges to the welfare state. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 153179.

Bodrug, J. (1982). Independent Orthodox Church: Memoirs pertaining to the history of a Ukrainian Canadian church in the years 1903–1913. Toronto: Ukrainian Canadian Research Foundation.

Boncompagni, A. (2001). The world is just like a village: Globalization and transnationalism of Italian migrants from Tuscany in Western Australia. Fucecchio: European Press Academic Publishers.

Bowles, E. (1992). Cultural centers of color: Report on a national survey. Washington, D.C.: The National Endowment for the Arts.

Breton, R. (1964). Institutional completeness of ethnic communities and the personal relations of immigrants. American Journal of Sociology, 70, 193205.

Breton, R. (1991). The Political Dimension of Ethnic Community Organization. In R. Ostrow, J. Fijalkowski, Y. M. Bodemann, & H. Merkens (Eds.), Ethnicity, Structured Inequality, and the State in Canada and the Federal Republic of Germany. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Brettel, C. B. (2005). Voluntary organizations, social capital and the social incorporation of Asian Indian immigrants in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. Anthropological Quarterly, 78, 853883.

Briggs, J. W. (1978). An Italian passage: Immigrants to three American cities, 1890–1930. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Brown, J. A. (1975). Voluntary associations among ethnic minority groups in Detroit, Michigan: A comparative study. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Berkeley, CA: University of California.

Brubaker, R. (2005). The ‘diaspora’ diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28, 119.

Burnley, I. H. (1970). “The Greeks” and “The Poles”. In K. W. Thompson & A. D. Trlin (Eds.), Immigrants in New Zealand (pp. 100124 and pp. 125151). Palmerston North: Massey University.

Burnet, J. & Palmer, H. (1988). Coming Canadians: An introduction to the history of Canada’s people. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

Cadge, W. & Ecklund, E. H. (2006). Religious service attendance among immigrants: Evidence from the New Immigrant Survey-Pilot. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 15471596.

Callahan, R. M. & Muller, C. (2013). Coming of political age: American schools and the civic development of immigrant youth. New York, NY: Russell Sage.

Camozzi, I. (2011). Migrant associations and their attempts to gain recognition: The case of Milan. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 11, 468491.

Campani, G. (1992). Family, village and regional networks of Italian immigrants in France and Quebec. In V. Satzewich (Ed.),Deconstructing a nation: Immigration, multiculturalism and racism in ’90s Canada (pp.183207). Halifax, NS: Fernwood Publishing.

Campbell, C. & McLean, C. (2002). Ethnic identities, social capital and health inequalities: Factors shaping African-Caribbean participation in local community networks in the uk. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 643657.

Canadian Historical Association. (2017). Immigration and ethnicity in Canada booklets. Accessed on August 1, 2017. Retrieved from the Library and Achieves Canada website.

Caponio, T. (2005). Policy networks and immigrants’ associations in Italy: The cases of Milan, Bologna and Naples. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31, 931950.

Carabain, C. L. & Bekkers, R. (2011). Religious and secular volunteering: A comparison between immigrants and non-immigrants in the Netherlands. Voluntary Sector Review, 2, 2341.

Caselli, M. (2010). Integration, participation, identity: Immigrant Associations in the province of Milan. International Migration, 48, 5878.

Casey, J. (1988). Ethnic associations and service delivery in Australia. In Jenkins, S. (Ed.), Ethnic associations and the welfare state: Service to immigrants in five countries (pp. 239273). New York, NY: Columbia Press.

cepal (Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe). (1998). Uso productivo de las remesas en El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua. Santiago: CEPAL.

Chavez, S. (2005). Community, ethnicity and class in a changing rural California town. Rural Sociology, 70, 314335.

Cheetham, J. (1988). Ethnic associations in Britain. In S. Jenkins (Ed.), Ethnic associations and the welfare state: Service to immigrants in five countries (pp. 239273). New York, NY: Columbia Press.

Clarke, B. P. (1993). Piety and nationalism: Lay voluntary associations and the creation of an Irish-Catholic community in Toronto, 1850–1895. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Clarke, J. (2013). Transnational actors in national contexts: migrant organizations in Greece in comparative perspective. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 13, 281301.

Clogg, R. (1999). The Greek diaspora in the twentieth century. St Antony’s Series. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Cnaan, R. A. & Curtis, D. W. (2013). Religious congregations as voluntary associations: An overview. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42, 733.

Cnaan, R. A., Handy, F., & Wadsworth, M. (1996). Defining who is a volunteer: Conceptual and empirical consideration. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 25, 364383.

Contopoulos, M. (1992). The Greek community of New York City: Early years to 1910. New Rochelle, NY: Aristide Caratzas Publishers.

Cordero-Guzmán, H. R. (2005). Community-based organizations and migration in New York City. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31, 889909.

Cordero-Guzmán, H. R., Smith, R., & Grosfoguel, R. (Eds.). (2001). Migration, transnationalization and race in a changing New York. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Cortes, M. (1998). Counting Latino nonprofits: A new strategy for finding data. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 27, 437458.

Couton, P. (2003). Ethnic institutions reconsidered: The case of Flemish workers in 19th century France. Journal of Historical Sociology, 16, 80110.

Crowley, J. E. & Skocpol, T. (2001). The rush to organize: Explaining associational formation in the United States, 1860s–1920s. American Journal of Political Science, 45, 813830.

Curtis, J. E., Baer, D. E., & Grabb, E. G. (2001). Nations of joiners: Explaining voluntary association membership in democratic societies. American Sociological Review, 66, 783805.

de Tocqueville, A. (1954). Democracy in America. New York, NY: Vintage.

Di Gessa, G. & Grundy, E. (2017). The dynamics of paid and unpaid activities among people aged 50–69 in Denmark, France, Italy, and England. Research on Aging, 39, 10131038.

De Graaf, H., Penninx, R., & Stoové, E. (1988). Minorities policies, social services, and ethnic organizations in the Netherlands. In S. Jenkins (Ed.), Ethnic associations and the welfare state: Service to immigrants in five countries (pp. 203238). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

DeMarco, W. M. (1981). Ethnics and enclaves: Boston’s Italian north end. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press.

DeSantis, G. & Benkin, R. (1980). Ethnicity without Community. Ethnicity, 7, 137143.

Dhingra, P. (2003). The second generation in “big D”: Korean American and Indian American organizations in Dallas, Texas. Sociological Spectrum, 23, 247278.

Diaz, W. (2003). For whom and for what? The contributions of the nonprofit sector. In L. M. Salamon (Ed.), The state of nonprofit America (pp. 517535). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Dobkowski, M. (1986). Jewish American voluntary organizations. A series of Ethnic American voluntary organizations. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.

Dolan, J. P. (1975). The immigrant church: New York’s Irish and German Catholics, 1815–1865. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Douglass, W. A. & Bilbao, J. (1975). Amerikanuak: Basques in the new world. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press.

Douramakou-Petroleka, L. (1985). The elusive community: Greek settlement in Toronto, 1900–1939. In R. F. Harney (Ed.), Gathering place: Peoples and neighbourhoods of Toronto, 1834–1945 (pp. 257302). Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario.

Ebaugh, H. R. & Chafetz, J. S. (2000a). Religion and new immigrants: Continuities and adaptations in immigrant congregation. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Ebaugh, H. R. & Chafetz, J. S. (2000b). Structural adaptions in immigrant congregations. Sociology of Religion, 61, 135153.

Eckstein, S. (2001). Community as gift-giving: Collective roots of volunteerism. American Sociological Review, 66, 829851.

Einolf, C. J., Prouteau, L., Nezhina, T., & Ibrayeva, A. (2016). Informal, unorganized volunteering. In D. H. Smith, R. A. Stebbins, & J. Grotz (Eds.), Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations (pp. 223241). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ember, M., Ember, C. R., & Skoggard, I. (Eds.). (2005). Encyclopedia of diasporas: Immigrant and refugee cultures around the world. Volume I: Overviews and topics and Volume II: Diaspora communities. New York, NY: Springer.

Erickson, C. (1972). Invisible immigrants: The adaptation of English and Scottish immigrants in nineteenth-century America. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press.

Espiritu, Y. L. (1992). Asian American panethnicity: Bridging institutions and identities. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Espiritu, Y. L. (1996). Colonial oppression, labour importation, and group formation: Filipinos in the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 2948.

European Union. (2017). Migration and migrant population statistics. In Europe in Figures—Eurostat Yearbook. Accessed on August 5, 2017. Retrieved from

Fennema, M. (2004). The concept and measurement of ethnic community. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30, 429447.

Fenton, J. Y. (1988). Transplanting religious traditions: Asian Indians in America. New York, NY: Praeger.

Finkelstein, M. & Brannick, M. (2007). Applying theories of institutional helping to informal volunteering: Motives, role identity, and prosocial personality. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35, 101114.

Flanagan, C. & Levine, P. (2010). Civic engagement and the transition to adulthood. Future of Children, 20, 159179.

Fong, E. & Shen, J. (2016). Participation in voluntary associations and social contact of immigrants in Canada. American Behavioral Scientist, 60, 617636.

Frisco, M. L., Muller, C., & Dodson, K. (2004). Participation in voluntary youth-serving associations and early adult voting behavior. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 660676.

Gabaccia, D. R. (1988). Militants and migrants: Rural Sicilians become American workers. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Galush, W. J. (1977). Faith and fatherland: dimensions of Polish-American ethnoreligion, 1875–1975. In R. M. Miller & T. D. Marzik (Eds.), Immigrants and religion in urban America (pp. 84102). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Gamm, G. & Putnam, R. D. (1999). The growth of voluntary associations in America, 1840–1940. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 29, 511557.

Gesthuizen, M., van der Meer, T., & Scheepers, P. (2009). Ethnic diversity and social capital in Europe: Tests of Putnam’s thesis in European countries. Scandinavian Political Studies, 32, 121142.

Giberovitch, M. (1994). The contributions of holocaust survivors to Montreal Jewish community life. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 26, 7484.

Gitmez, A. & Wilpert, C. (1987). A micro-society or an ethnic community? Social organization and ethnicity amongst Turkish migrants in Berlin. In J. Rex, D. Joly, & C. Wilpert (Eds.), Immigrant Associations in Europe (pp. 86125). Aldershot: Gower.

Goldring, L. (1998). The power of status in transnational social fields. In M. P. Smith & L. E. Guarnizo (Eds.), Transnationalism from below. Comparative urban and community research (Book 6). New Brunswick, NJ, and London: Routledge.

Goldring, L. (2001). Gender and the geography of citizenship in Mexico–U.S. transnational spaces. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 7, 501537.

Goldring, L. (2002). The Mexican state and transmigrant organizations: Negotiating the boundaries of membership and participation. Latin American Research Review, 37, 5599.

Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Grabb, E., Hwang, M., & Andersen, R. (2009). Bridging and bonding: Ethnic background and voluntary association activity in Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 41, 4767.

Green, D. G. (1993). Reinventing civil society: Rediscovery of welfare without politics. London: Civitas: Institute for the Study of Civil Society.

Green, D. G. & Cromwell, L. G. (1984). Mutual aid or welfare state: Australia’s friendly societies. Sydney and Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin.

Greene, V. R. (1975). For god and country: The rise of Polish and Lithuanian ethnic consciousness in America, 1860–1910. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

Guarnizo, L. E. (2003). The economics of transnational living. International Migration Review, 37, 666699.

Hammond, P. E. & Warner, K. (1993). Religion and ethnicity in late twentieth century. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 527, 5566.

Handlin, O. (1951). The uprooted: The epic story of the great migrations that made the American people. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.

Handy, F. & Greenspan, I. (2009). Immigrant volunteering: A stepping stone to integration? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38, 956982.

Hansmann, H. B. (1980). The role of nonprofit enterprise. The Yale Law Journal, 89, 835901.

Harris, B., Morris, A., Ascough, R. S., Chikoto, G. L., Elson, P. R., McLoughlin, J., …Yu, P. (2016). History of Associations and Volunteering. In D. H. Smith, R. A. Stebbins, & J. Grotz (Eds.), Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations (pp. 2358). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hein, J. (1997). Ethnic organizations and the welfare state: The impact of social welfare programs on the formation of Indochinese refugee association. Sociological Forum, 12, 279295.

Henry, F. (1994). The Caribbean diaspora in Toronto: Learning to live with racism. Toronto: University of Toronto.

Herberg, W. (1960). Protestant, Catholic, Jew: An essay in American religious sociology. Revised edition. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.

Hernandez, J. A. (1983). Mutual aid for survival: The case of the Mexican American. Malabar, FL: R. E. Krieger.

Hillmer. P. (2010). A people’s history of the Hmong. St. Paul, MN: Historical Society Press.

Hirschman, C. (2004). The role of religion in the origins and adaption of immigrant groups in the United States. International Migration Review, 38, 12061233.

Hong, S. (2001). Associations in village society in Jiangxi in the Ming-Qing period: the case of Liukeng village, Le’an County. Chinese Studies in History, 35, 3161.

Hooghe, M. (2005). Ethnic organizations and social movement theory: The political opportunity structure for ethnic mobilisation in Flanders. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31, 975990.

Hopkins, E. (1995). Working-class self-help in nineteenth-century England: Responses to industrialization. New York, NY: St Martin’s Press.

Hofmeister, R. A. (1976). The Germans of Chicago. Chicago, IL: Stipes Publishing Co.

Hurh, W. M. & Kim, K. C. (1990). Religious participation of Korean immigrants in the United States. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 19, 1934.

Hung, C. R. (2007). Immigrant nonprofit organizations in U.S. metropolitan areas. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36, 707729.

Hung, C. R. (2008). Asian American nonprofit organizations in U.S. metropolitan areas. Institute for Asian American Studies Publications, Paper 2. Accessed on August 1, 2017. Retrieved from

Hutcheson, J. D. Jr. & Dominguez, L. H.. (1986). Ethnic self-help organizations in non-barrio settings: Community identity and voluntary action. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 15, 1322.

IOM (International Organization for Migration). (2003). World migration 2003. Geneva: The International Organization for Migration (IOM).

IOM (International Organization for Migration). (2013). Diasporas and development: Bridging societies and states. Geneva: The International Organization for Migration (iom).

Ishizawa, H. (2014). Volunteerism among Mexican youth in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 36, 247264.

Ishizawa, H. (2015). Civic participation through volunteerism among youth across immigrant generations. Sociological Perspectives, 58, 264285.

Italian National Institute of Statistics (2014). Non-community citizens regularly stayers. Rome: Italian National Institute of Statistics. Accessed on August 1, 2017. Retrieved from

Itzigsohn, J. & Saucedo, S. G. (2002). Immigrant incorporation and sociocultural transnationalism. International Migration Review, 36, 766799.

Jenkins, S. (1980). The ethnic agency defined, Social Science Review, 54, 249261.

Jenkins, S. (1988). Ethnic associations and the welfare state: Services to immigrants in five countries. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Johnson, G. E. (1971). Natives, migrants and voluntary associations in a colonial Chinese setting. Unpublished PhD thesis, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

Kaluski, M. (1985). The Poles in Australia. Melbourne: AE Press.

Kawashima-Ginsberg, K. & Kirby, E. H. (2009). Volunteering among youth of immigrant origin (FACT Sheet). College Park, MD: CIRCLE.

Kelly, L. (2003). Bosnian refugees in Britain: Questioning community. Sociology, 37, 3549.

Kerri, J. N. (1974). An inductive examination of voluntary associations in a single-enterprise based community. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 1, 4351.

Kerri, J. N. (1976). Studying voluntary associations as adaptive mechanisms: A review of anthropological perspectives. Current Anthropology, 17, 2347.

Kimura, Y. (1988). Issei: Japanese immigrants in Hawaii. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Kliger, H. (1992). Jewish hometown associations and family circles in New York: The WPA Yiddish Writers’ Group study. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Kloppenborg, J. S. & Wilson, S. G. (1996). Voluntary associations in the Graeco-Roman world. London and New York, NY: Routledge.

Kramer, J. Y. (1985). Self-help in Soweto: Mutual aid societies in a South African city. New York, NY: Lilian Barber Press.

Kuo, C. (1977). Social and political change in New York’s Chinatown: The role of voluntary associations. New York, NY: Praeger.

Kurien, P. (2001). Constructing “‘Indianness” in Southern California: The role of Hindu and Muslim Indian immigrants. In M. Lopez-Garza & D. R. Diaz (Eds.), Asian and Latino immigrants in a restructuring economy: The metamorphosis of Southern California (pp. 289312). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Kurien, P. (2007). A place at the multicultural table: The development of American Hinduism. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Kuzniewski, A. J. (1980). Faith and fatherland: The Polish church war in Wisconsin, 1896–1918. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Lacomba, J. & Cloquell, A. (2014). Migrants, associations and home country development: Implications for discussions on transnationalism. New Diversities, 16, 2138.

Laguerre, M. S. (1984). American odyssey: Haitians in New York City. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Layton-Henry, Z. (1990). Immigrant associations. In Z. Layton-Henry (Ed.), Political rights of migrant workers in Western Europe (pp. 94112). London: Sage.

Lee, Y. & Brudney, J. (2012). Participation in formal and informal volunteering: Implications for volunteer recruitment. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 23, 159180.

Lemon, M., Palisi, B. J., & Jacobson, P. E. (1972). Dominant statuses and involvement in formal voluntary associations. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 1, 3042.

Levine, P. (2008). The civic engagement of youth immigrants: Why does it matter? Applied Developmental Science, 12, 102104.

Levitt, P. (2001). The transnational villagers. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Levitt, P. (2002). Migrant philanthropy in Latin America. ReVista, Harvard Review of Latin America. Retrieved on August 10, 2017, from

Levitt, P. (2008). Religion as a path to civic engagement. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31, 766791.

Li, M. (1999). “We Need Two Worlds”: Chinese immigrant association in a Western society. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Liu, H. (1998). Old linkages, new networks: the globalization of overseas Chinese voluntary associations and its implications. The China Quarterly, 155, 582609.

Logan, J. R., Darrah, J, & Oh, S. (2012). The impact of race and ethnicity, immigration and political context on participation in American electoral politics. Social Forces, 90, 9931022.

Lohmann, R. A. (1992). The commons: New perspectives on nonprofit organizations, voluntary action and philanthropy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lone, S. (2001). The Japanese community in Brazil, 1908–1940: Between samurai and carnival. London: Palgrave.

Louis-Jaques, D. (1991). Refugee adaptation and community structure: The Indochinese in Quebec City, Canada. International Migration Review, 25, 550572.

Lowenstein, S. M. (1989). Frankfurt on the Hudson: The German-Jewish community of Washington Heights, 1933–1983, its structure and culture. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Lyman, S. M. (1974). Forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization. In S. M. Lyman (Ed.), Chinese Americans (pp. 828). New York, NY: Random House.

Mahler, S. (2000). Migration and transnational issues: Recent trends and prospects for 2020. Hamburg: Institut für Iberoamerika-Kunde.

Majka, L. & Mullan, B. (2002). Ethnic communities and ethnic organizations reconsidered: South-East Asians and Eastern Europeans in Chicago. International Migration, 40, 7192.

Manning, P. (2013). Migration in World History. New York and London: Routledge.

Marcelo, K. B., Lopez, M. H., & Kirby, E. H. (2007). Civic engagement among minority youth (Fact Sheet). College Park, MD: CIRCLE.

Marini, F. (2013). Immigrants and transnational engagement in the diaspora: Ghanaian associations in Italy and the UK. African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal, 6, 131144.

Markowitz, F. (1992). Community without organizations. Civil and Society, 6, 141155.

Marks, D. K. (1996). Women and grass roots democracy in the Americas: Sustaining the initiative. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami, North-South Center Press.

Massey, D. S., Alarcón, R., Durand, J., & González, H. (1987). Return to Aztlán: The social process of international migration from Western Mexico. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Mavroudi, E. & Nagel, C. (2016). Global migration: Patterns, processes, and politics. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mazzucato, V. & Kabki, M. (2009). Small is beautiful: The micro-politics of transnational relationships between Ghanaian hometown associations and communities back home. Global Networks: A Journal of Transnational Affairs, 9, 227251.

McLaughlin, K. M. (1985). The Germans in Canada. Booklet No. 11 of The immigration and ethnicity in Canada series. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association.

Mercer, C., Page, B., & Evans, M. (2013). Development and the African diaspora: Place and the politics of home. New York, NY: Zed Books.

Metress, S. P. (1995). The American Irish and Irish nationalism: A sociohistorical introduction. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Min, P. G. (1992). The structure and social functions of Korean immigrant churches in the United States. International Migration Review, 26, 13701394.

Min, P. G. & Jang, S. H. (2015). The diversity of Asian immigrants’ participation in religious institutions in the United States. Sociology of Religion, 76, 253274.

Moghaddam, F. M., Taylor, D. M., & Lalonde, R. N. (1987). Individualistic and collective integration strategies among Iranians in Canada. International Journal of Psychology, 22, 201313.

Mormino, G. R. & Pozzetta, G. E. (1987). The immigrant world of Ybor City: Italians and their Latin neighbors in Tampa, 1885–1985. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Moya, J. C. (2005). Immigrants and associations: A global and historical perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31, 833864.

Musick, M. A. & Wilson, J. (2008). Volunteers: A Social Profile. Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press.

Musick, M. A., Wilson, J., & Bynum, W. B. Jr. (2000). Race and formal volunteering: The differential effects of class and religion. Social Forces, 78, 15391570.

Nadel, S. (1990). Little Germany: Ethnicity, religion, and class in New York City, 1845–80. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Naff, A. (1985). Becoming American: The early Arab immigrant experience. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Nelli, H. S. (1970). Italians in Chicago, 1880–1930: A study in ethnic mobility. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Ng, W. C. (1999). The Chinese in Vancouver, 1945–1980: The pursuit of identity and power. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Oesterle, S., Johnson, M. K., & Mortimer, J. T. (2004). Volunteerism during the transition to adulthood: A life course perspective. Social Forces, 82, 11231149.

Oh, J. & Im, C. (2015). Trends and issues of the Korean diaspora churches in the USA. In S. J. Tira & T. Yamamori (Eds.), Scattered and gathered: Global compendium on diaspora missiology (pp. 314326). Oxford: Regnum Books International.

Okamura, J. Y. (1983). Filipino hometown associations in Hawaii. Ethnology, 22, 341353.

Olson, J. S. & Beal, H. O. (2010). The ethnic dimension in American history. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

O’Neill, M. (2002). Nonprofit nation: A new look at third America. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Orozco, M. (2002). Latino hometown associations as agents of development in Latin America. In R. O. de la Garza & B. L. Lowell (Eds.), Sending money home: Hispanic remittances and community development (pp. 8599). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Orozco, M. (2003). Hometown associations and their present and future partnerships: New development opportunities? Report commissioned by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Dialogue.

Orozco, M. (2005a). Hometown associations and development: Ownership, correspondence, sustainability and replicability. In B. J. Merz, (Ed.). New patterns for Mexico: Observations on remittances, philanthropic giving, and equitable development (pp. 157179). Cambridge, MA: Global Equity Initiative, Asia Center, Harvard University: Distributed by Harvard University Press.

Orozco, M. (2005b). Diasporas, development and transnational integration: Ghanaians in the U.S., U.K. and Germany. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of International Migration and Inter-American Dialogue.

Orozco, M. (2007). Central American diasporas and hometown associations . In B. J. Merz, L. C. Chen, & P. F. Geithner (Eds.), Diasporas and development (pp. 215253). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Orozco, M. & Garcia-Zanello, E. (2009). Hometown associations: Transnationalism, philanthropy, and development. Brown Journal of World Affairs, 15, 5773.

Orozco, M. & Lapointe, M. (2004). Mexican hometown associations and development opportunities. Journal of International Affairs, 57, 3152.

Orozco, M. & Rouse, R. (2007). Migrant hometown associations and opportunities for development: A global perspective. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved on July 20, 2017, from

Ostergren, R. (1981). The immigrant church as a symbol of community and place in the Upper Midwest. Great Plains Quarterly, 1, 225238.

Owusu, T. Y. (2000). The role of Ghanaian immigrant associations in Toronto, Canada. International Migration Review, 34, 11511181.

Ozcurumez, S. (2009). Immigrant associations in Canada: Included, accommodated, or excluded? Journal of Turkish Studies, 10, 195215.

Pacyga, D. A. (1991). Polish immigrants and industrial Chicago: Workers on the South Side, 1880–1922. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.

Padilla, Y. (1997). Social services to Mexican American populations in the United States. In G Cardenas & A. Ugalde (Eds.), Health and social services among international labor migrants (pp. 927). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Paquette, M. G. (1982). Basques to Bakersfield. Bakersfield, CA: Kern County Historical Society.

Parot, J. J. (1981). Polish Catholics in Chicago, 1850–1920: A religious history. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press.

Passel, J. S. (2011). Demography of immigrant youth: Past, present, and future. Future of Children, 21, 1941.

Patterson, W. (1988). The Korean frontier in America: Immigration to Hawaii, 1886–1910. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Paul, A. & Gammage, S. (2004). Hometown associations and development: The case of El Salvador. Destination d.c. Working Paper No. 3. Women’s Studies Department, George Washington University and Center for Women and Work, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.

Peoples, J. & Bailey, G. (2010). Humanity: An introduction to cultural anthropology. Ninth edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Peterson, E. (1996). The changing faces of tradition: A report on the folk and traditional arts in the United States. NEA Research Division Report #38. Washington, D.C.: The National Endowment for the Arts.

Pirkkalainen, P., Mezzetti, P., & Guglielmo, M. (2013). Somali associations’ trajectories in Italy and Finland: Leaders building trust and finding legitimisation. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39, 12611279.

Popkin, E. (1995). Guatemalan hometown associations in Los Angeles. In Central Americans in California: Transnational communities, economics, and cultures, Monograph Paper, No. 1 (pp. 3539). Los Angeles, CA: Center for Multiethnic and Transnational Studies, University of Southern California.

Portes, A., Escobar, C., & Radford, A. W. (2007). Immigrant transnational organizations and development: A comparative study. International Migration Review, 41, 242281.

Portes, A. & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Portes, A. & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants among post-1965 immigrant youth. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530, 7498.

Portney, K. E. & Berry, J. M. (1997). Mobilizing minority communities: Social capital and participation in urban neighborhoods. The American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 632644.

Poyaoan, J. (2013). How lending circles & mutual aid groups create community resilience. Accessed on June 25, 2017. Retrieved from

Putnam, R. (2007). E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century. Scandinavian Political Studies, 30, 137174.

Radecki, H. (1979). Ethnic organizational dynamics: The Polish Group in Canada. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Ramakrishnan, S. K. (2005). Democracy in immigrant America: Changing demographics and political participation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Raska, J. (n.d.). Starting points: Researching Canadian immigration and ethnic history. Halifax, NS: Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21. Accessed on July 25, 2017. Retrieved from

Reed, P. B. & Selbee, L. K. (2000). Formal and informal volunteering and giving: Regional and community patterns in Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Rex, J., Joly, D., & Wilpert, C. (1987). Immigrant associations in Europe. Aldershot: Gower.

Reitz, J. G. (1980). The Survival of ethnic groups. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

Roker, D., Player, K., & Coleman, J. (1999). Exploring adolescent altruism: British young people’s involvement in voluntary work and campaigning. In M. Yates & J. Youniss (Eds.), Roots of civic identity: International perspectives on community service and activism in youth (pp. 5672). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenberg, S. (1985). The new Jewish identity in America. New York, NY: Hippocrene Books.

Rosenstein, C. (2006a). Cultural heritage organizations: Nonprofits that support traditional, ethnic, folk, and noncommercial popular culture. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute.

Rosenstein, C. (2006b). How cultural heritage organizations serve communities: Priorities, strengths, and challenges. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute.

Ross, J. C. (1976). An assembly of good fellows: Voluntary associations in history. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Rotolo, T. (2000). Town heterogeneity and affiliation: A multilevel analysis of voluntary association membership. Sociological Perspectives, 43, 271289.

Ruiter, S. & de Graaf, N. D. (2006). National context, religiosity, and volunteering: Results from 53 countries. American Sociological Review, 71, 191210.

Rumbaut, R. G. (2000). Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian Americans. In M. Zhou & J. B. Gatewood (Eds.), Contemporary Asian America: A multidisciplinary reader (pp. 175206). New York, NY: New York University Press.

Safran, W. (1991). Diasporas in modern societies: Myths of homeland and return. Diaspora, 1, 8399.

Salamon, L. M. (1987). Of market failure, voluntary failure, and third-party government: Toward a theory of government-nonprofit relations in the modern welfare state. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 16, 2949.

Sassen-Koob, S. (1979). Formal and informal associations: Dominicans and Colombians in New York. International Migration Review, 13, 314332.

Scalabrini Migration Center (2010). Realizing migration and development in Philippines: Charting new policies, perspectives and partnerships. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 19, 551576.

Schiavo, G. E. (1928). The Italians in Chicago: A study in Americanization. Chicago, IL: Italian American Publishing Co.

Schoeneberg, U. (1985). Participation in ethnic associations: The case of immigrants in West Germany. International Migration Review, 19, 416437.

Schrover, M. & Vermeulen, F. (2005). Immigrant organizations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31, 823832.

Scott, K., Selbee, K., & Reed, P. (2005). Making connections: Social and civic engagement among Canadian immigrants. Accessed on August 1, 2017. Retrieved from

Sirola, P., Ong, P., & Fu, V. (1998). Effective participation? Asian American community-based organizations in urban policy and planning. Asian American Policy Review, 8, 117.

Smith, B., Shue, S.Vest, J. L., & Villarreal, J. (1994). Ethnic philanthropy: Sharing and giving money, goods, and services in the African American, Mexican, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, Guatemalan, and Salvadorian communities of the San Francisco Bay area. San Francisco, CA: University of San Francisco, Institute for Nonprofit Organization Management.

Smith, B., Shue, S., Vest, J. L., & Villarreal, J. (1999). Philanthropy in communities of color. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Smith, C. E. & Freedman, A. E. (1972). Voluntary associations: Perspectives on the literature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Smith, D. H. (1983). Synanthrometrics: On progress in the development of a general theory of voluntary action and citizen participation. In D. H. Smith, J. Van Til, & others (Eds.), International perspectives on voluntary action research. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America.

Smith, D. H. (1994). Determinants of voluntary association participation and volunteering: A literature review. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 23, 243263.

Smith, D. H. (1997). Grassroots associations are important: Some theory and a review of the impact literature, Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 26, 269306.

Smith, D. H. (2015, November). S-Theory as a comprehensive explanation of formal volunteering: Testing the theory of everyone on Russian National Sample Interview Data. Paper presented at the annual conference of arnova, Chicago, il.

Smith, D. H. & Mersianova, I. (2016, November). S-Theory as a comprehensive explanation of informal volunteering: Testing the theory of everyone on Russian National Sample Interview Data. Paper presented at the annual conference of arnova, Washington, d.c.

Smith, D. H., Never, B., Torpe, L., Abu-Rumman, S., Afaq, A. K., Bethmann, S., Gavelin, K., Heitman, J. H., Jaishi, T., Kutty, A. D., Mati, J. M., Paturyan, Y. J., Petrov, R. G., Pospíšilová, T., & Svedberg, L. (2016). Scope and trends of volunteering and associations. In D. H. Smith, R. A. Stebbins, & J. Grotz (Eds.), Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations (pp. 12411283). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Smith, D. H. & Wang, L. (2016). Conducive social roles and demographics influencing volunteering. In D. H. Smith, R. A. Stebbins, & J. Grotz (Eds.), Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations (pp. 632681). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Smith, S. R. & Lipsky, M. (1993). Nonprofits for hire: The welfare state in the age of contracting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sokolsky, Z. Y. (1985). The beginnings of Ukrainian settlement in Toronto, 1891–1939. In R. F. Harney (Ed.), Gathering places: Peoples and neighbourhoods of Toronto, 1834–1945 (pp. 279302). Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario.

Somerville, W., Durana, J., & Terrazas, A. M. (2008). Hometown associations: An untapped resource for immigrant integration? Washington, D.C.: Migrant Policy Institute.

Soyer, D. (1997). Jewish immigrant associations and American identity in New York, 1880–1939. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Spanish National Institute of Statistics. (2015, June). Population figures at 1 January 2015 Migrations Statistics 2014: Provisional data. Accessed on August 1, 2017. Retrieved from

Statistics Canada. (2016). Immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada. Accessed on July 20, 2017. Retrieved from

Staub, S. (2003). Small organizations in the folk and traditional arts: Strategies for support. Issues in Folk Arts and Traditional Culture Working Paper Series, #1. Santa Fe, nm: The Fund for Folk Culture.

Stern, M. J., Seifert, S. C., & Vitiello, D. (2008). Migrants, communities, and culture. Social Impact of the Arts Project, University of Pennsylvania and the Reinvestment Fund, Rockefeller Foundation. Accessed on August 1st, 2017. Retrieved from

Stoll, M. (2001). Race, neighborhood poverty, and participation in voluntary associations. Sociological Forum, 16, 529557.

Stout, H. S. (1975). Ethnicity: The vital center of religion in America. Ethnicity, 2, 204224.

Stuer, A. P. (1982). The French in Australia. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Sturino, F. (1990). Forging the chain: A case study of Italian migration to North America, 1880–1930. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario.

Sundeen, R. A., Garcia, C., & Raskoff, S. A. (2009). Ethnicity, acculturation, and volunteering to organizations: A comparison of African Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and Whites. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38, 929955.

Sundeen, R. A., Garcia, C., & Wang, L. (2007). Volunteer behavior among Asian American groups in the United States. Journal of Asian American Studies, 10, 243281.

Sznajder, M. & Roniger, L. (2009). The politics of exile in Latin America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Taniguchi, H. (2012). The determinants of formal and informal volunteering: Evidence from the American Time Use Survey. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 23, 920939.

Thomas, W. I. & Znaniecki, F. (1927). The Polish peasant in Europe and America. New York, NY: A. A. Knopf.

Thomas, W. I. & Znaniecki, F. (1958). The Polish community in America, Vol. II, New Dover Edition. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Thompson, R. H. (1989). Toronto’s Chinatown: The changing social organization of an ethnic community. New York, NY: AMS Press.

Tomasi, S. M. (1975). Piety and power: The role of the Italian parishes in the New York metropolitan area, 1880–1930. Staten Island, NY: Center for Migration Studies.

Tong, Y. (2010). Foreign-born concentration and acculturation to volunteering among immigrant youth. Social Forces, 89, 117143.

Toepler, S. (2002). Grassroots associations versus larger nonprofits: New evidence from a case study of arts and culture. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 32, 236251.

Treudley, M. B. (1949). Formal organization and the Americanization process, with special reference to the Greeks of Boston. American Sociological Review, 14, 4453.

Turner, P. R. (1994). Community and culture: The growth of voluntary associations in Roanne, 1860–1914. Unpublished PhD thesis, Ann Arbor, mi: University of Michigan.

United Nations Statistics Division (2017). International migration: Concepts and definitions. Retrieved on July 20, 2017 from

United Kingdom Office for National Statistics (2013). Immigration patterns of non-UK born populations in England and Wales in 2011. London: Office for National Statistics.

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2016). Volunteering in the United States, 2015. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

van der Linden, M. (1996). Social security mutualism: The comparative history of mutual benefit societies. Bern and New York: Peter Lang.

Van Heelsum, A. & Voorthuysen, E. (2002). Surinaamse Organisaties in Nederland: een netwerkanalyse. Amsterdam: Aksant.

Van Tubergen, F. (2006). Religious affiliation and attendance among immigrants in eight western countries: Individual and contextual effects. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 45, 122.

Vang, C. (2010). Hmong America: Restructuring community in diaspora. Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Vasileva, K. (2011). 6.5 percent of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4 percent are born abroad. Eurostat, Statistics in Focus (34/2011). Luxembourg: European Union.

Vecoli, R. J. (1964). Contadini in Chicago: A critique of The uprooted. Journal of American History, 51, 404417.

Vecoli, R. J. (1969). Prelates and peasants: Italian immigrants and the Catholic Church. Journal of Social History, 2, 217268.

Verdonk, A., Mancho, S., Peredo, C., Prada, A., Recio, J., Seoane, L., & Soest, R. (1987). Spanish immigrant associations in the Netherlands and Switzerland and the problem of ethnic identity. In J. Rex, D. Joly, & C. Wilpert (Eds.), Immigrant associations in Europe (pp. 219238). Aldershot: Gower.

Vermeulen, F. (2005). Organizational patterns: Surinamese and Turkish associations in Amsterdam, 1960–1990. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31, 951973.

Vicentini, A. & Fava, T. (2001). Le Associazioni di Cittadini Stranieri in Italia. Venice: Fondazione Corazzin.

Vigod, B. L. (1984). The Jews in Canada. Booklet No. 7 of The immigration and ethnicity in Canada Series. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association.

Voicu, B. & Şerban, M. (2012). Immigrant involvement in voluntary associations in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38, 15691587.

Voicu, B. (2014). Participative immigrants or participative cultures? The importance of cultural heritage in determining involvement in associations. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 25, 612635.

Waldinger, R. (2007). Between here and there: How attached are Latino immigrants to their native country? Washington, D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center.

Wali, A., Severson, R., & Longoni, M. (2002). Informal arts: Finding cohesion, capacity and other cultural benefits in unexpected places. A Research Report to the Chicago Center for Arts Policy at Columbia College, Chicago.

Wang, L. (2011). Understanding how philanthropy and nonprofit activities manifest in minority communities in the United States. In K. A. Agard (Ed.), Leadership in nonprofit organizations: A reference handbook (pp. 258266). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wang, L. & Fahey, D. (2011). Parental volunteering: The resulting trends since No Child Left Behind. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40, 11131131.

Wang, L. & Handy, F. (2014). Religious and secular voluntary participation by immigrants in Canada: How trust and social networks affect decision to participate. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 25, 15591582.

Wang, L., Mook, L., & Handy, F. (2017). An empirical analysis of formal and informal volunteering in Canada. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 28, 139161.

Wang, L., Yoshioka, C. F., & Ashcraft, R. F. (2013). What affects Hispanic volunteering in the United States: Comparing the current population survey, panel study of income dynamics, and the AIM giving and volunteering survey. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 24, 125148.

Ward, P. W. (1982). The Japanese in Canada. Booklet No. 3 of The immigration and ethnicity in Canada Series. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association.

Warner, R. S. (1993). Work in progress toward a new paradigm for the sociological study of religion in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 10441093.

Warner, R. S. (1994). The place of the congregation in the American religious configuration. In J. P. Wind & J. W. Lewis (Eds.), American Congregations, Vol. 2. (pp. 5499). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Warner, R. S. (1998). Immigration and religious communities in the United States. In R. S. Warner & J. G. Wittner (Eds.), Gatherings in the diaspora: Religious communities and the new immigration (pp. 334). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Warner, R. S. & Wittner, J. G. (Eds.) (1998). Gatherings in the diaspora: Religious communities and the new immigration. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Weisbrod, B. (1988). The nonprofit economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Weisser, A. (1985). A brotherhood of memory: Jewish landsmanshaftn in the new world. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Werbner, P. (1985). The organization of giving and ethnic elites: Voluntary associations amongst Manchester Pakistanis. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 8, 368388.

White, J. M. (1980). Religion and community: Cincinnati Germans, 1814–1870. Unpublished PhD thesis, Notre Dame, in: University of Notre Dame.

Wickberg, E. (Ed.). (1982). From China to Canada: A history of the Chinese communities in Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

Williams, R. B. (1988). Religions of immigrants from India and Pakistan: New threads in the American tapestry. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Wilmott, W. E. (1964). Chinese clan associations in Vancouver, Man, 64, 3337.

Wilson, J. (2000). Volunteering. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 215240.

Wilson, J. & Musick, M. A. (1997). Who cares? Toward an integrated theory of volunteer work. American Sociological Review, 62, 694713.

Wong, J. (2006). Democracy’s promise: Immigrants and American civic institutions. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Wong, P., Applewhite, S., & Daley, J. M. (1990). From despotism to pluralism: The evolution of voluntary organizations in Chinese American communities, Ethnic Groups, 8, 215234.

Woo, W. (1991). Chinese Protestants in the San Francisco bay area. In S. Chan (Ed.), Entry denied: Exclusion and the Chinese community in America, 1882–1943 (pp. 213245). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Wuthnow, R. & Christiano, K. (1979). The effect of residential migration on church attendance in the United States. In R. Wuthnow (Ed.), The religious dimension: New directions in quantitative research (pp. 257276). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Yancey, W. L., Ericksen, E. P., & Leon, G. H. (1985). The structure of pluralism: “We’re all Italian around here, aren’t we, Mrs. O’Brien?”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 8, 94116.

Yang, F. (1999). Chinese Christians in America: Conversion, assimilation, and adhesive identities. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Yang, F. (2000). The Hsi-Nan Chinese Buddhist temple: Seeking to Americanize. In H. R. Ebaugh & J. S. Chafetz (Eds.). Religion and the new immigrants: Continuities and adaptions in immigrant congregations (pp. 6787). Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Yang, S. (2012). The evolution of Hmong self-help organizations in Minnesota. Hmong Studies Journal, 13, 134.

Yans-McLaughlin, V. (1977). Family and community: Italian immigrants in Buffalo, 1880–1930. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Yeboah, I. E. A. (2008). Black African neo-diaspora: Ghanaian immigrant experiences in the Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, area. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Yu, E. (1988). The growth of Korean Buddhism in the United States, with special reference to Southern California. The Pacific World: Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, 4, 8293.

Zanfrini, L. & Sarli, A. (2009). Migrants’ Associations and Philippine Institutions for Development (First Year’s Activity): Italian report. Manila: Scalabrini Migration Center.

Zhou, M. & Kim, R. Y. (2006). The paradox of ethnicization and assimilation: The development of ethnic organizations in the Chinese immigrant community in the United States. In K. E. Kuah-Pearce & E. Hu-Dehart (Eds.), Voluntary organizations in the Chinese diaspora (pp. 269290). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Zhou, M. & Lee, R. (2013). Transnationalism and community building: Chinese immigrant organizations in the United States. The Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 647, 2249.

Zucchi, J. E. (1988). Italians in Toronto: Development of a national identity, 1875–1935. Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 31 31 15
Full Text Views 6 6 5
PDF Downloads 1 1 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0