Korean Nonprofit/Non-Government Sector Research: A Literature Review and Analysis

In: Voluntaristics Review
View More View Less
  • 1 North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
  • 2 Kwangwoon University, Seoul, South Korea

Abstract

Discourses on the nonprofit sector and civil society have elevated awareness of the significant growth of the sector’s roles and responsibilities since the early 1990s in South Korea (hereafter simply Korea). The nonprofit sector has played significant roles in promoting economic progress and democracy in Korea. Based on extensive empirical research and government statistics, this article presents the nature of the Korean nonprofit sector from various angles, including terminology, history, legal frames, size and dimensions, financial resources, changes in philanthropy and volunteer cultures, and social economic perspectives. In addition, the authors discuss contemporary issues for the nonprofit sector based on changes in the social environment.

In discussing the magnitude of the Korean nonprofit sector, this article makes three arguments. First, we confirm that the Korean nonprofit sector has rapidly grown in multidimensional aspects as the legal systems for the nonprofits have developed in Korea since World War II. The growth has been accelerated by strong government supports and initiatives. Second, we argue that lack of conceptual frameworks to identify the nonprofit sector and lack of a centralized administration system have hindered fully catching up on the nature of the nonprofit sector in Korea. Multiple legal frameworks and excessively complicated governing systems for the nonprofit sector have inhibited understanding the size and dimensions of the Korean nonprofit sector. This article further diagnoses the financial structures and the contemporary issues for the Korean nonprofit sector, discussing key suggestions for developing it.

  • Jung, J-K., & Kim, S-J. (forthcoming, 2021). South Korean nonprofit/non-government researcher associations. Chapter in Smith, D. H., & Wu, X., eds., History of voluntaristics researcher associations globally. Under editorial review by university publisher.

  • Kim, S-J., & Jung, J-K. (2020). Korean nonprofit/non-government sector research: A literature review and analysis. Voluntaristics Review: Brill Research Perspectives 4.6. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D. H., & Wu, X. (eds.). (forthcoming, 2021). History of voluntaristics researcher associations globally. Under editorial review by university publisher.

  • Beautiful Foundation (2018). Giving Korea 2018—key philanthropic index in Korea. Paper presented at the 18th Donation Culture Symposium, Seoul, Korea.

  • Bekkers, R. & Wiepking, P. (2006). To give or not to give, that is the question: How methodology is destiny in Dutch giving data. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35(3), 533540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bidet, E. (2002). Explaining the third sector in South Korea, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 13(2), 131147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandsen, T., & Simsa, R. (2016). Civil society, nonprofit organizations, and citizenship in China: An editorial introduction in the China issue. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 27, 20112020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, P. D. (2019). Evolution of student movements in Korea and their impact on the formation of Korean democracy. Fordham University Digital Research, Senior Theses, 26. Retrieved from: https://fordham.bepress.com/international_senior/26.

  • Bushouse, B. K. (2017). Leveraging nonprofit and voluntary action research to inform public policy. The Policy Studies Journal, 45(1), 5073.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cakar, U. & Kim, H. (2017) Experiences of non-profit organizations in Korea: Development challenges in an emerging economy. In V. Potocan et al. (Eds.), Handbook of research on managerial solutions in non-profit organizations (pp. 499528). Herzberg, PA: IGI Global.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casey, J. (2016). Comparing nonprofit sectors around the world. Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership, 6(3), 187223.

  • Cho, H. S., Yeom, T. S., Kim, H. J., & Cho, S. W. (2010). 정부의 비영리민간단체 지원 백서 [White paper: Government support for nonprofit and private organizations in 2010]. Retrieved from: http://www.snpo.kr/data//file/npo_aca/3542491938_SgTKmAPF_2010_2010EB8584ECA095EBB680EC9D98EBB984EC9881EBA6ACEBAFBCEAB084EB8BA8ECB2B4ECA780EC9B90EBB0B1EC849C_ED959CEAB5ADNPOEAB3B5EB8F99ED9A8CEC9D98.pdf.

  • Cho, Y. H. (2016). 자원봉사활성화를 위한 법제 분석 [Legislative analysis for volunteer promotion]. Issue paper for Korea Legislation Research Institute, no. 15-21-4. Retrieved from http://www.ndsl.kr/ndsl/commons/util/ndslOriginalView.do?dbt=TRKO&cn=TRKO201600001359&rn=&url=&pageCode=PG18.

  • Choi, B. Y. (2017). An exploratory study on factors affecting private college non-viability in Korea. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1970039275?pq-origsite=gscholar.

  • Choi, J. J. (2012). Democracy after democratization: The Korean experiences. Hong Kong: Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center.

  • Choi, S. O. & Yang, S. (2011). Understanding challenge and opportunities in the nonprofit sector in Korea. International Review of Public Administration, 16(1), 5170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Civic Movement Information Center. (2015). 한국시민사회운동 25년사:1989–2014 [Korean civil society and NGOs: The 25 years’ history of the civil society movement, 1989–2014]. Seoul: KNGO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Do, M. Y. (2017). 2016–2017 박근혜 퇴진 촛불집회 참여의 결정요인 [The determinants of participation in the candlelight protest for the impeachment of Park Geun-hye from 2016 to 2017]. Korean Journal of Legislative Studies, 23(2), 109146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudden, A. (2017). Revolution by candlelight: How Koreans toppled a government. Dissent, 64(4), 8692.

  • Dwivedi, S. S. (2017). Civil society and democracy in East Asia with special reference to South Korea. Journal of Social and Economic Development, 19(1), 211226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Federation of the Korean Industries (2018). 2018 주요 기업의 사회적 가치 보고서 [2018 social value report for the key companies in S. Korea]. Retrieved from: http://www.fki.or.kr/publication/report/View.aspx?content_id=e48607ae-3456-4e3e-803e-8ab2b53a9f77.

    • Export Citation
  • Gidron, B., Kramer, R. M., & Salamon, L. M. (1992). Government and the third sector: Emerging relationships in welfare states. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GuideStar Korea (2019). NPO 공시기본현황 [NPO Disclosure Basic Status]. Retrieved from: http://www.guidestar.or.kr/guide/npostat.asp.

    • Export Citation
  • Gong, S. G. & Yu, J. Y. (2017, November). 한국비영리섹터 지형분석 [Topographical analysis of Korean nonprofit sectors]. Symposium conducted at the 17th Philanthropic Culture Symposium, Seoul, Korea.

  • Grady, J. & Aubrun, A. (2005, September 21). The explanation gap: How democracy depends on nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved from: /https://nonprofitquarterly.org/the-explanation-gap-how-democracy-depends-on-nonprofit-organizations.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grønbjerg, K. A. (1993). Understanding nonprofit funding. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Ha, S. K. (2002). The role of NGOs for low-income groups in Korean society. Environment & Urbanization, 14(1), 219229.

  • Ha, S. S. (2006). 기부금품모집규제법 개정의 경의와 법제도적 함의 [The procedure of the revision of “act on control over fundraising” and its implications]. Korean NPO Study, 5(2), 2554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Han, D. W. (2003). 사회복지관의 재정: 문제와 함의 [The financial problems of community welfare centers and their implications]. Korean NPO Study, 2(1), 165189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, B., Morris, A., Ascough, R. S., Chikoto, G. L., Elson, P. R., Mc Loughlin, J., Muukkonen, M., Pospíšilová, T., Roka, K., Smith, D. H., Soteri-Proctor, A., Tumanova, A., & Yu, P. (2016). “History of associations and volunteering.” In D. H. Smith, R. A. Stebbins, & J. Grotz (Eds.), Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations (pp. 2358). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heo, J. & Yoon, S. (2018). 2016–2017 년 촛불 혁명의 정치적 기회 구조와 시민 사회 운동 확장에 관한 연구 [A study on the political opportunity structure of the 2016–17 candlelight revolution and extension of civil society movements]. Journal of Citizen & World, 33, 141172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodge, M. M. & Piccolo, R. F. (2005). Funding source, board involvement techniques, and financial vulnerability in nonprofit organizations: A test of resource dependency. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 16 (2), 171190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hwang, C. S. (2001). 한국의 의료법인: 비영리 조직의 관점 [Medical corporations in Korea: A nonprofit perspective]. East–West Studies, 13(1), 171190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hwang, D. S. (2009). 한국 비영리 기관의 현황과 특징 [Status and characteristics of Korean Nonprofit Organizations]. Labor Review. 2738. Retrieved from: https://www.kli.re.kr/_FILE/NEW_PUBLICATIONS/2048a5a7dc1b89bc89b77316293b78a8.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hwang, D. S., Jang, W., Park, J. S., & Kim, S. (2013). Social enterprise in Korea. International Comparative Social Enterprise Models (ICSEM) working papers, no. 35. Retrieved from: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/SEJ-09-2017-0047/full/html.

  • Jang, Y. J., Lee, Y. J., & Jeon, H. K. (2018). 한국 비영리 조직의 개괄적 현황 분석 [A current overview of Korean nonprofit organizations] (Beautiful Foundation Special Studies 1). Retrieved from: https://research.beautifulfund.org/10171/3-비영리단체의-법적-유형/.

    • Export Citation
  • Jeon, H. K. (2015a). 우리기관의 법적지위- 비영리법인? 공익법인? 민간단체? [Legal status of our institution: Nonprofit corporation? Public interest corporation? Private organization?], August 27, Beautiful Foundation Special Issue 1. Retrieved from: https://research.beautifulfund.org/1539/%ec%9e%ac%eb%8b%a8%ed%8a%b9%ec%a7%91%e2%91%a0-%ec%9a%b0%eb%a6%ac-%ea%b8%b0%ea%b4%80%ec%9d%98-%eb%b2%95%ec%a0%81%ec%a7%80%ec%9c%84-%eb%b9%84%ec%98%81%eb%a6%ac%eb%b2%95%ec%9d%b8-%ea%b3%b5%ec%9d%b5/.

    • Export Citation
  • Jeon, H. K. (2015b). 공익재단, 사회환원의 방법인가? 조세회피의 꼼수인가? [Is the incorporating nonprofit organization by the Civil Code a method for social responsibility or the trick to avoid taxes?], September 30, Beautiful Foundation Special Issue for Foundation 3. Retrieved from: https://research.beautifulfund.org/1580/%EC%9E%AC%EB%8B%A8%ED%8A%B9%EC%A7%91%E2%91%A2%EA%B3%B5%EC%9D%B5%EC%9E%AC%EB%8B%A8%EC%82%AC%ED%9A%8C%ED%99%98%EC%9B%90%EC%9D%98-%EB%B0%A9%EB%B2%95%EC%9D%B8%EA%B0%80-%EC%A1%B0%EC%84%B8%ED%9A%8C/.

    • Export Citation
  • Jeong, B. G. (2015). The development state and social enterprise in Korea. Social Enterprise Journal, 11(2), 122.

  • Jeong, B. & Kim, S. J. (2019). NPO/NGO higher education programs in Korea. Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership, 9(1), 3962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeong, S. H. (2016). 한국의 시민사회 제도사 연구: 산업화 단계 (1961–1986) 의 사회영역을 중심으로 [The research on the history of civil society’s institutions: Focusing on the social sphere during the industrial period (1961–1986) in Korea]. Civil Society & NGO, 14(1), 5192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jung, J. K. (2017). 기부금품의 역사적 변화 연구: 금지에서 규제로, 규제완화에서 건전한 기부문화 조성으로 [A study on the historical changes of the Act on Collection and Use of Donations from 1951 to 2016 in Korea]. Legislation and Policy Studies, 9(2), 377400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jung, J. K. (2013). 복지국가 맥락에서 스웨덴, 미국, 한국의 자원봉사정책 비교연구 [Comparative study on the volunteer policy of Sweden, US, and Korea in the context of welfare countries]. Korean Public Administration Review, 47(2), 137160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jung, J. K., Choi, Y. M., Lee, R. H., Song, J. A., Song, I. J., & Cho, C. M. (2017). 자원봉사 진흥 제3차 국가 기본 계획 (2018–2022 [Research on the establishment of the 3rd national basic plan for volunteer promotion (2018–2022)]. Retrieved from http://www.prism.go.kr/homepage/researchCommon/downloadResearchAttachFile.do?work_key=001&file_type=CPR&seq_no=001&research_id=1740000-201700023&pdf_conv_yn=N.

    • Export Citation
  • Ju, S., Jung, H. S., & Yun, Y. M. (2017). 자원봉사활동 실태조사 및 활성화 방안 연구 [2017 Korean volunteering, giving, and helping study]. retrieved from https://mois.go.kr/cmm/fms/FileDown.do?atchFileId=FILE_00075306noBuYUK&fileSn=0.

    • Export Citation
  • Jung, H. & Ali, M. (2017). Corporate social responsibility, organizational justice and positive employee attitudes: In the context of Korean employment relations. Sustainability, 9, 124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jung, K., Jang, H. S., & Seo, I. (2015). Government-driven social enterprises in Korea: Lessons from the social enterprise promotion program in the Seoul metropolitan government. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 82(3), 598616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jung, Y., Mazmanian, D., & Tang, S. (2009). Collaborative governance in the United States and Korea: Cases in negotiated policymaking and service delivery. International Review of Public Administration, 13(supp 1), 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, S. (2001). 우리나라 NGO의 성장에 관한 연구- 시민단체를 중심으로 [Study on the growth of Korean NGOs: Focusing on civil organizations]. Doctoral dissertation, Seoul National University. Retrieved from: http://civilpower3.ivyro.net/wpcontent/uploads/2015/11/%EA%B0%95%EC%83%81%EC%9A%B1_NGO%EC%84%B1%EC%9E%A5%EC%97%B0%EA%B5%AC.pdf.

  • Kang, C. H., Auh, E. Y., & Hur, Y. (2015). Giving in Korea: A nation of givers for the population under public assistance. In. P. Wiepking & F. Hondy (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of global philanthropy (pp. 426454). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, C. H. & Min, I. S. (2011). 유한킴벌리 Giving Index: 한국인의 개인 기부 지수 10년의 기부문화 추이분석 [Korean philanthropy in ten years: Analysis of trend and estimated size of giving]. In the Center on Philanthropy at Beautiful Foundation (Eds.), Giving Korea 2010 (pp. 4170). Seoul: The Center on Philanthropy at Beautiful Foundation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KEDI (Korean Educational Development Institution) (2018). 2018 간추린 교육 통계 [2018 Brief statistics on Korean Education]. Retrieved from: https://kess.kedi.re.kr/publ/view?survSeq=2018&publSeq=3&menuSeq=0&itemCode=02&language=.

    • Export Citation
  • Kenny, S. (2013). Challenging third sector concepts, Third Sector Review, 19(1), 171188.

  • Kim, B. K. (2019, May). 거시적 관점에서 시민 사회조직 발전 방안-지역 커뮤니티 기반 시민사회 활성화 가능성 [Issues and challenges on the civil movement and organizations in changing—the prospective of civil society organization]. Report of the 3rd Forum on the Strong Civil Society. Seoul NPO Center. Simin, Civil Society Revitalization Group.

  • Kim, E. Y. (2009). The limits of non-government relations in Korea, Asian Survey, 49(5), 873894.

  • Kim, H. R. (1997). Korean NGOs: Global trend and prospect. Global Economic Review, 26, 93115.

  • Kim, H. S. (2017). 사회적 경제 제도화 과정에 대한 비판적담론 분석 [Analysis of critical discourse on the institutionalization process of social economy: Focus on the legislative process of Social Economy Basic Law]. Korea Social Economy & Policy Study, 7(1), 2761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, H. R., & Choi, J. H. (2017). The growth of higher education and science production in South Korea since 1945. International Perspectives on Education and Society, 33, 205226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, I. & Hwang, C. (2002). Defining the nonprofit sector: Korea. Working papers of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, no. 41. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies.

  • Kim, J. K. (2005). Governance, organizational effectiveness, and the nonprofit sector in Korea, Korean Journal of Policy Study, 19(2), 1533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, P. S. (2002). The development of Korean NGOs and governmental assistance to NGOs, Korea Journal, 43(2), 279303.

  • Kim, R. & Moon, J. (2015). Dynamics of corporate social responsibility in Asia: Knowledge and norms. Asian Business & Management, 14(5), 349382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. J. (2014). Management and leadership for human service organizations: Philanthropy and government relationship. Saarbrücken, Germany: LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. M. (2018). Candlelight for our country’s right name: A confusion interpretation of Korea’s Candlelight Revolution. Religions, 9(11), 120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. Y. (2019). The less-known history of the voluntary sector in and east Asian welfare regime: A Korean case. Nonprofit Policy Forum, 10(1), 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. E. & Ahn, Y. C. (2014). 한국의 비영리부분 성장에 대한 이해: 사회자본의 역할 분석 [Understanding the growth of the nonprofit sector in Korea: An analysis of the role of social capital]. Korean Public Administration Journal, 23(4), 89112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. E. & Kim, Y. H. (2018). Democracy and nonprofit growth: A cross-national panel study. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 47(4), 702722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. H. & Jeong, J. H. (2017). Historical development of civil society in Korea since 1987, Journal of International and Area studies, 24(2), 114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. J. & Jeong, B. (2019, November). Nonprofit and nongovernmental higher education in Korea: Similarity and dissimilarity in the education programs between Korea and the US. Paper presented at Association of Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA) 48th Annual Conference, San Diego, CA, USA.

  • Kim, Y. C. (2018). 2016–2017년 촛불 집회의 역사적 맥락과 마지노 노선 민주주의 [The historical context of the candlelight assembly in 2016–2017 and Maginot line democracy]. Journal of the 21st Century Political Science Association, 28(1), 120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ko, H. W., Lee, S. W., Kang, J. W., & Im, W. S. (2006). 자활사업의 평가 연구: 정책설계와 정책효과 그리고 쟁점들 [Evaluation self-sufficiency program: Policy design, effectiveness and challenges]. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. Retrieved from: https://www.kihasa.re.kr/common/filedown.do?seq=16088.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kong, S. & Yu, J. (2017, November). 한국비영리섹터 지형분석 [Korea nonprofit sector structure analysis]. Paper presented at the 17th Philanthropy and Culture Symposium, Seoul, Korea.

  • Koo, H. (2016). In search of a civil society in Korea. Retrieved from: http://www.ikorea.ac.kr/congress/upload/society_culture1-koo_hagen.pdf.

  • Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs (2018). 2018년 한국복지패널: 기초분석 보고서 [2018 Korea Welfare Panel: Basic analysis report]. Retrieved from: http://repository.kihasa.re.kr/bitstream/201002/32629/1/2018%EB%85%84%20%ED%95%9C%EA%B5%AD%EB%B3%B5%EC%A7%80%ED%8C%A8%EB%84%90%20%EA%B8%B0%EC%B4%88%EB%B6%84%EC%84%9D%20%EB%B3%B4%EA%B3%A0%EC%84%9C.pdf.

  • Korea Law Translation Center (n.d.a). Act of Collection and Use of Donations. Retrieved from: https://elaw.klri.re.kr/kor_service/lawView.do?hseq=47137&lang=ENG.

    • Export Citation
  • Korea Law Translation Center (n.d.b). Framework Act on Volunteer Service Activities. Retrieved from: https://elaw.klri.re.kr/kor_service/lawView.do?hseq=47214&lang=ENG.

    • Export Citation
  • Korean Higher Education Research Institution (2017). 대교연 통계—대학수 [KHEI Statistics—The number of universities in Korea]. Retrieved from: https://khei-khei.tistory.com/2277.

    • Export Citation
  • Korean Institute for Health and Welfare (2017). 나눔실태 2017 [Philanthropic giving 2017]. Retrieved from http://www.prism.go.kr/homepage/lately/retrieveLatelyDetail.do;jsessionid=8CC35ECE1609EA1AFA5CE836EE718E18.node02?research_id=1351000-201800205.

    • Export Citation
  • Korean Labor Institute (2017). 2017년 사회적기업 실태 조사 [Social enterprise status study]. Retrieved from: http://ikose.or.kr/?module=file&act=procFileDownload&file_srl=279491&sid=fe5e2184fa2b45c7e3e3f049573b6c15.

    • Export Citation
  • KOSIS (Korean Statistical Information Service) (n.d.). 시도별 종별 요양기관 현황 [Status of hospital by city]. Retrieved from: http://kosis.kr/statHtml/statHtml.do?orgId=354&tblId=DT_MIRE01&vw_cd=MT_OTITLE&list_id=354_MT_DTITLE&scrId=&seqNo=&lang_mode=ko&obj_var_id=&itm_id=&conn_path=K2&path=%252Fcommon%252Fmeta_onedepth.jsp.

    • Export Citation
  • Kuruvila, A. (2015). Non-governmental organizations (NGOs): Issues of terminology and definitions. Rajagiri Journal of Social Development, 7(1), 2029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, C. S., Lee, Y. H., Nam, S. H., & Kim, J. H. (2016). 자원봉사자의 사회적, 경제적 가치분석: 사회서비스 산업을 중심으로 [Volunteer social and economic value analysis: Focusing on the social service industry]. Retrieved from https://data.kihasa.re.kr/db/subject_view.jsp?grp_seq=&project_seq=549.

    • Export Citation
  • Lee, E. S. & Suk, H. (2017). 국내 사회적경제조직의 유형에 관한 연구: 퍼지셋 이념형 분석을 주심으로 [A Typology of social economy organization in Korea: Fuzzy ideal type analysis]. Korean Society of Public Administration, 27(4), 179213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, H. (2018). Global philanthropy environment index: Country report 2018— Republic of Korea. Retrieved from: https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/15995.

    • Export Citation
  • Lee, H. S. (1999). 한국 노인 인구 [Korea’s aging population]. Korea Focus, 7(5), 7892.

  • Lee, J. H. (2017). 박근혜 촛불, 누가 왜 참여했나: 참여행동 모형과 참여태도 모형의 비교 [Who and why participated in the 2017 Candlelight protest]. Korean Political Studies, 26(2), 75104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, J. S. (2019). 현행 자원봉사활동 기본법 상 자원봉사활동 활성화를 위한 법적 제고 방안 [Strengthening legal grounds to promote volunteer activities under the current fundamental law]. Northeast Asia Law Study, 13(2), 295331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S. (2018). 기업 재단 사회공헌 촉진을 위한 규제완화 필요 [Deregulation needed to promote the social contribution of corporate foundation]. KAA Journal, May/June, 36–37. Retrieved from: http://www.kaa.or.kr/k/mag/2018/05_06/kaa0506_37.pdf.

  • Lee, S. C. (2006). 사립학교법 개정과정과 주요내용 분석 [The analysis of amendment process and major contents of private school law], The Journal of Educational Administration, 24(1), 197224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S. J. & Arrington, C. (2008). The politics of NGOs and democratic governance in Korea and Japan. Pacific Focus, 23(1), 7596.

  • Lee, S. M. (2002). 기업의 사회적 책임: 미국과 한국의 사회공헌활동 비교 [Corporate social responsibility: A comparative study of corporate philanthropy in the US and Korea]. Korean Journal of Sociology, 36(2), 77111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S. S. (2018). 국내 민간공익 재단의 대한 세법적 규제의 변화 및 기본방향 [Changes and basic directions of legal regulations for the domestic public incorporations: Laws for the registration and maintaining of the public incorporations]. Beautiful Foundation Special Research Project 6, 3187. Retrieved from: https://research.beautifulfund.org/1197/%EA%B8%B0%ED%9A%8D%EC%97%B0%EA%B5%AC2013%EA%B5%AD%EB%82%B4%EB%AF%BC%EA%B0%84%EA%B3%B5%EC%9D%B5%EC%9E%AC%EB%8B%A8%EC%97%90%EB%8C%80%ED%95%9C%EC%84%B8%EB%B2%95%EC%A0%81%EA%B7%9C%EC%A0%9C%EC%9D%98/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, T. (2018). Korea’s Candlelight Revolution and participatory democracy. E-Magazine, 1: Democracy, Asian Leadership Fellowship Program. Retrieved from: http://alfpnetwork.net/en/e-magazine001_06/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lowry, C. (2008). Civil society engagement in Asia: Six country profiles. East–West Centre, Honolulu. Retrieved from: https://www.eastwestcenter.org/sites/default/files/filemanager/Research_Program/Politics_Governance_and_Security/AGDI/Country%20specific%20analysis.pdf.

  • McKeever, B. S. (2015, October). The nonprofit sector in brief 2015: Public charities, giving, and volunteering. Center on Nonprofit and Philanthropy at Urban Institution. Retrieved from: https://www.urban.org/research/publication/nonprofit-sector-brief-2015-public-charities-giving-and-volunteering.

    • Export Citation
  • McQuaid, R. W. (2000). The theory of partnerships—Why have partnerships. In Osborne, S. P. (Ed.), Managing public-private partnerships for public services: An international perspective, New York: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Economy and Finance (2019). 지정기부단체 등록 현황 [Annual registration status of designated donation organizations]. Retrieved from: http://www.moef.go.kr.

    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Health and Welfare (2018). 2018 사회복지시설 관리안내 [2018 guide for the social welfare facility]. Retrieved from: http://www.kawid.or.kr/weel_bbs/board.php?bo_table=B41&wr_id=256.

    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Health and Welfare (2019, March). 2019 전국사회복지법인 현황 [National social welfare incorporations in 2019]. Retrieved from: https://www.mohw.go.kr/react/gm/sgm0601vw.jsp?PAR_MENU_ID=13&MENU_ID=1304020605&page=1&CONT_SEQ=335220.

    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of the Interior and Safety (2017). 2017 한국자원봉사 실태조사 및 활성화 방안 연구 [2017 Korea volunteering culture and volunteer promotion plan study]. Retrieved from: https://mois.go.kr/cmm/fms/FileDown.do?atchFileId=FILE_00075306noBuYUK&fileSn=0.

    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of the Interior and Safety (2019). 비영리단체 등록 현황 [The statistics of registered nonprofit private organizations]. Retrieved from: https://www.mois.go.kr/frt/bbs/type001/commonSelectBoardArticle.do?bbsId=BBSMSTR_00103000058&nttId=71304.

    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of the Interior and Safety & Korea Volunteer Center (2019). 2018 전국자원봉사센터 현황 [2018 Korean national volunteer center statistics]. Retrieved from: https://www.mois.go.kr/frt/bbs/type001/commonSelectBoardArticle.do?bbsId=BBSMSTR_00106000059&nttId=67095.

    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Public Administration and Safety (2017). 2017 자원봉사활동 실태조사(20세 이상) 및 활성화방안 연구 [2017 volunteer activity survey (20 or older) and stimulation plan for the volunteer]. Retrieved from: https://mois.go.kr/cmm/fms/FileDown.do?atchFileId=FILE_00075306noBuYUK&fileSn=0.

    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, G. E. & Calabrese, T. D. (2019). Proverbs of nonprofit financial management. American Review of Public Administration, 49(6), 649661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Najam, A. (2000). The four C’s of third sector-government relations: confrontation, co-optation, complementarily, cooperation. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 10(4), 375396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Statistical Bureau (2018). 2017 사회조사 [2017 Social Research]. Retrieved from: http://m.kostat.go.kr/board/file_dn.jsp?aSeq=364361&ord=4.

    • Export Citation
  • National Tax Service (2018). 국세 통계 연감 [National Tax Statistics Yearbook]. Retrieved from https://stats.nts.go.kr/.

    • Export Citation
  • Oh, W. & Park, S. (2015). The relationship between corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance in Korea. Emerging Markets Finance & Trade, 51, S85S94.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Open Data Portal (n.d.a). 의료법인 현황 [Medical incorporations statistics]. Retrieved from: https://www.data.go.kr/dataset/3083309/fileData.do;jsessionid=gdmNGP3UDV-lEICG28Xpdptm.node20.

    • Export Citation
  • Open Data Portal (n.d.b). 복지서비스 복지시설 통계 현황 [Welfare service and welfare facilities statistics]. Retrieved from: https://www.data.go.kr/dataset/15027967/fileData.do?lang=en.

    • Export Citation
  • Park, C. & Wilding, M. (2013). Social enterprise policy design: Constructing social enterprise in the UK and Korea. International Journal of Social Welfare, 22(3), 236247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, S. J. (2017). 촛불의 시민성: 시민사회를 넘어서는 시민 [Candlelight citizenship: citizens beyond civil society]. Journal of Citizen & World, 30, 125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Posnet, J., & Sandler, T. (1988). Transfers, transaction costs and charitable intermediaries. International review of Law and Economic, 8, 145160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rajan, R. (2019). The third pillar: How markets and the state leave the community behind. London: Penguin.

  • Roh, D. M., Kang, H. K., I Won., Lee, E. H. (2008). 보건복지부문 제3섹터에 대한 연구 [A Study on the Third Sector in Health and Welfare system]. Retrieved from https://www.kli.re.kr/downloadPblFile.do?atchmnflNo=18928.

    • Export Citation
  • Roh, Y. (2013). 국내 기부, 자원봉사 관련 조사연구 동향 분석 [Domestic donation and volunteer research trend analysis]. Paper published for the Beautiful Foundation Research Report 2013. Retrieved from: https://research.beautifulfund.org/1209/%EA%B8%B0%ED%9A%8D%EC%97%B0%EA%B5%AC-20134-%EA%B5%AD%EB%82%B4-%EA%B8%B0%EB%B6%80-%EC%9E%90%EC%9B%90%EB%B4%89%EC%82%AC-%EA%B4%80%EB%A0%A8-EC%A1%B0%EC%82%AC%EC%97%B0%EA%B5%AC-%EB%8F%99%ED%96%A5/.

    • Export Citation
  • Salamon, L. M. (Ed.). (2012). The state of nonprofit America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

  • Salamon, L. M. & Anheier, H. K. (1998). Social origins of civil society: Explaining the nonprofit sector cross-nationally. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 9(3), 213248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salamon L. M., Sokolowski, S. W., & Associates (2004). Global civil society: Dimensions of the nonprofit sector (2 vols). Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seoul Institute (2018). 2018 서울시 복지실태조사 기초분석보고서 [2018 Seoul welfare status study: Basic analysis report]. Retrieved from: http://data.si.re.kr/sisurvey2018er10.

    • Export Citation
  • Seoul Welfare Foundation (2010). 서울시 복지페널: 2차 본조사 기초분석 보고서 [Seoul welfare panel: 2nd basic survey]. Retrieved from: https://wish.welfare.seoul.kr/upload/data/_20140717105455692.pdf.

  • Shim, J. J. (2011). 사회복지사업법 제정사 연구 [A historical analysis of the enactment of the Social Welfare Services Act of 1970]. Journal of Social Security Studies, 27(2), 279307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silk, T. (2010). The legal framework of the nonprofit sector in the United States. In D. O. Renz & Associates (Eds.), The Jossey-Bass handbook of nonprofit leadership and management (pp. 65–82). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D. H. (2000). Grassroots associations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

  • Smith, D. H. (2017). The global historical and contemporary impacts of voluntary membership associations on human societies. Voluntaristics Review: Brill Research Perspectives, 2(5–6), 1125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D. H., Never, B., Mohan, J., Prouteau, L., & Torpe, L. (2016). Prevalence rates of associations across territories. In D. H. Smith, R. A. Stebbins, & J. Grotz (Eds.), Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations (pp. 1210–1238). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D. H., Stebbins, R. A., & Grotz, J. (Eds.). (2016). Palgrave handbook of volunteering, civic participation, and nonprofit associations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Special Committee for Employment (2017). 사회적 경제 활성화 방안 [Social economy revitalization plan]. Retrieved from: http://sehub.net/wpcontent/uploads/2017/10/20171025_010754.pdf.

  • Stebbins, R. A. (2015). Leisure and the motive to volunteer: theories of serious, casual, and project-based leisure. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suh, H. Y. (2016). 비영리 조직의 투명성을 통한 기부문화 활성화 방안 [Donation culture activation plan through transparency of non-profit organization]. Korean Tax Research, 16(1), 99132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Slyke, D. M. (2006). Agents or stewards: Using theory to understand the government-nonprofit social service contracting relationship, 157–187.

  • Waele, E. D. & Hustinx, L. (2019). Governing through volunteering: The discursive field of government-initiated volunteering in the form of workfare volunteering. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 48(25), 74S102S.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, J. M. (2018). 자원봉사 활동 기본법 개정논의에 관한 검토 [A review on amendments of Framework Act on Volunteer Activities. Han-Yang Law Review, 29(4), 105125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, D. R. (2006). Complementary, supplementary, or adversarial? Nonprofit- government relations. In E. T. Boris & C. E. Steuerle (2nd Eds), Nonprofits & government: Collaboration & conflict (pp. 37–79). Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 108 109 8
Full Text Views 3 3 1
PDF Downloads 2 2 0