Isaiah’s Prophetic Instruction and the Disciples in Isaiah 8:16

in Vetus Testamentum
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Isa 8:16 is considered a key reference regarding the formation of the book of Isaiah and the role of prophetic disciples in this process. This article argues, however, that originally this verse had a more limited significance. The instruction to which v. 16 refers is to be identified with vv. 12-15 rather than an early ‘book’ of Isaiah. The expression ‘the instructed ones’ (of YHWH rather than the prophet) is applied to the prophet’s audience. This term reflects Isaiah’s characteristic view of prophesying as an act of instruction and prophecy as a form of teaching, and it does not presuppose the existence of any prophetic school. The view that sealing the instruction would allude to preserving prophetic teaching for the posterity is discounted here in favour of understanding the symbolic act as a metaphor from the legal sphere refering to authentication, with no inherent temporal significance.

Vetus Testamentum

A Quarterly Published by the International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament




See, e.g., H. G. Reventlow, “Das Ende der sog. ‘Denkschrift’ Jesajas”, BN 38/39 (1987), pp. 62-67; S. A. Irvine, “The Isaianic Denkschrift: Reconsidering an Old Hypothesis”, ZAW 104 (1992), pp. 216-231.


Kaiser, Jesaja, p. 189; H. Wildberger, Jesaja I (BKAT 10/1; Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1972), p. 343; H. Barth, Jesaja-Worte der Josiazeit (WMANT 48; Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1977), pp. 152-156; R. E. Clements, Isaiah 1-39 (Grand Rapids, MI, 1980), p. 101; Becker, Jesaja, p. 21; Barthel, Prophetenwort, pp. 59-60, 229-230; W. A. M. Beuken, Jesaja 1-12 (HThKAT; Freiburg, 2003), pp. 215, 230; Wagner, Herrschaft, pp. 80-81, 283.


Cf. Williamson, Book, pp. 99-102; J. Dekker, “Bind Up the Testimony: Isaiah 8:16 and the making of the Hebrew Bible”, in R. de Hoop et al. (eds), The Impact of Unit Delimitation on Exegesis (Pericope 7; Leiden, 2009), pp. 67-68.


Cf. Wildberger, Jesaja, p. 346; Williamson, Book, pp. 6-8; Dekker, “Bind Up”, pp. 75-76.


J. Boehmer, “ ‘Jahwes Lehrlinge’ im Buch Jesaja”, ARW 33 (1936), pp. 171-75.


So Dekker, “Bind Up”, p. 68, on 1QIsaa, Codex Leningradiensis, Codex Alpensis, and Ms 7a1 of the Peshitta.


Wildberger, Jesaja, pp. 342-43; Beuken, Jesaja, p. 214; Dekker, “Bind Up”, pp. 67-68. The problematic relationship between vv. 16 and 17 was also felt by the Aramaic and Greek translators who inserted extra words in order to clarify the speakers of the conversation. Interestingly, their solution is again similar (cf. אמר / λέγω).


Williamson, Book, p. 103.


Cf. Williamson, Book, pp. 99, 101.


Wildberger, Jesaja, pp. 275, 337.


Clements, Isaiah, p. 99; Becker, Botschaft, p. 201; Barthel, Prophetenwort, p. 224; De Jong, Isaiah, p. 71.


L. G. Rignell, “Das Orakel ‘Maher-salal Has-baz’. Jesaja 8”, StTh 10 (1957), p. 45, comes to a similar conclusion. The objection of Wildberger that קֶשֶׁר is not used in connection with an external enemy (Wildberger, Jesaja, p. 337; cf. also Barthel, Prophetenwort, p. 224) contradicts the evidence of 2 Kgs 17:4, in which King Hoshea’s rebellion against the Assyrian king is called קֶשֶׁר. The word קֶשֶׁר simply means a political alliance. Whether this refers to domestic or foreign connections goes beyond the semantic field of the term. See further 2 Kgs 11:14; 2 Chr 23:13; cf. also 2 Kgs 9:23 with 9:14.


Cf. discussion in Dekker, “Bind Up”, pp. 63-88.


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 10 10 7
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0