Ezekiel’s Temple in Babylonian Context

in Vetus Testamentum
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Abstract

Comparison between Ezekiel’s visionary temple and Neo-Babylonian temples shows similar organization of space and personnel. These formal similarities stem from a similar root purpose: maintaining strict standards of sanctity.

Vetus Testamentum

A Quarterly Published by the International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament

Sections

References

3

C. Castel, “Temples à l’époque néo-babylonienne: une même conception de l’espace sacré,” RA 85 (1991), pp. 169-187.

4

Odell, “The Wall is No More,” pp. 343-344.

5

Odell, “The Wall is No More,” p. 354.

6

Castel, “Temples à l’époque néo-babylonienne,” pp. 170-171.

9

Odell, “The Wall is No More,” p. 341.

19

Heinrich, Die Tempel und Heiligtümer, pp. 284-285 (with city plan of Babylon on plate 382); C. Waerzeggers, The Ezida Temple of Borsippa: Priesthood, Cult, Archives (Achaemenid History 15; Leiden, 2010), pp. 14-15.

22

George, Babylonian Topographical Texts, pp. 215, 220-221.

26

Block, The Book of Ezekiel, p. 516.

28

Hurowitz, “Tenth Century,” p. 20.

30

See Greenberg, “Design and Themes,” p. 202.

33

Waerzeggers, Ezida, p. 13.

34

Waerzeggers, Ezida, p. 13 n. 64.

35

See Hurowitz, “Tenth Century,” p. 25. Also see V. Hurowitz, “Solomon’s Temple in Context,” BAR 37 no. 2 (March/April 2011) pp. 46-58.

36

Castel, “Temples à l’époque néo-babylonienne,” pp. 171-172.

37

Ezida: Heinrich, Die Tempel und Heiligtümer, p. 292; pl. 397 (rooms A1, A2 and A3). Hursagkalama: Heinrich, Die Tempel und Heiligtümer, p. 283; pl. 380 (rooms 7, 4, and 1).

38

Castel, “Temples à l’époque néo-babylonienne,” pp. 170-171; Waerzeggers, Ezida, p. 11.

41

Waerzeggers, Ezida, pp. 11-13. For references to similar locations in other temples, see cadšutummu3, pp. 413-414). For discussion of archeological remains, see Heinrich, Die Tempel und Heiligtümer, pp. 287 (Esagil), 291 (Ezida) and 297 (Ur temple complex).

43

Castel, “Temples à l’époque néo-babylonienne,” p. 174; Allinger-Csollich, “Birs Nimrud II,” pp. 146-153.

48

George, Babylonian Topographical Texts, p. 91. The gate lists include: George, Babylonian Topographical Texts, Nos. 6-8 (pp. 92-98; of Esagil) and the reverse of No. 31 (pp. 210-211; of Eanna). For other fragmentary gate lists, see George, Babylonian Topographical Texts, p. 91.

50

George, Babylonian Topographical Texts, p. 436.

55

Waerzeggers, “The Pious King,” pp. 735-737; Jursa, Neo-Babylonian Legal and Administrative Documents, pp. 31-35.

56

Waerzeggers, “The Pious King,” p. 735 and eadem, Ezida, p. 46, with additional references in n. 247.

57

See Waerzeggers, Ezida, pp. 47-48 with references to the same ranking in other temples in n. 252. Note that both groups underwent the same ritual induction by shaving, and were thus separate from other groups, like the minor craftsmen, who did not (Waerzeggers, Ezida, pp. 49-56).

59

Waerzeggers, Ezida, pp. 52-53. For more in-depth study of the initiation process see C. Waerzeggers and M. Jursa, “On the Initiation of Babylonian Priests,” Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte 14 (2008), pp. 1-36. Waerzeggers and Jursa make passing comparisons with the biblical materials without specifically referring to Ezekiel.

60

Greenberg, “Design and Themes,” p. 203.

61

Castel, “Temples à l’époque néo-babylonienne,” p. 171; Heinrich, Die Tempel und Heiligtümer, pp. 294-295.

62

Waerzeggers, Ezida, p. 11. Also see Waerzeggers and Jursa, “Initiation,” pp. 15-17.

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