The Origin and Nature of the US “Military-Industrial Complex”

in Vulcan
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

This paper makes three primary claims. First, the so-called military-industrial complex (MIC) has its roots in the United States during World War I, when the army and navy turned to private firms for design of aircraft, and not, as some analysts have proposed, in the latter part of the nineteenth century. Second, the MIC took on its current shape during the 1950s. President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s famous warning, in effect, expressed recognition of and perhaps something like dismay at his own creation. Finally, despite the broad shift in responsibility for design, development, and production of military systems from government to industry in the middle of the last century, the armed forces remain the dominant partner in the MIC by reason of their control over the technical requirements that shape and constrain weapons system design. This leaves the defense industry a junior partner.

Vulcan

The Journal of the History of Military Technology

Sections

References

AlicJohn A. 1993. “Computer Assisted Everything? Tools and Techniques for Design and Production.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 44: 35974.

AlicJohn A. 2007. Trillions for Military Technology: How the Pentagon Innovates and Why It Costs So Much. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

AlicJohn A. 2012. “Defense Department Energy Innovation: Three Cases.” In Energy Innovation at the Department of Defense: Assessing the Opportunities, 1531. Washington, DC: Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes, March.

AlicJohn A. 2013. “Managing US Defense Acquisition.” Enterprise & Society 14 no. 2 (March): 136.

BLS [Bureau of Labor Statistics]. 2012. “Occupational Employment Statistics: Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2012.” Available online at url: www.bls.gov/oes/.

BrandsH.W. 1989. “The Age of Vulnerability: Eisenhower and the National Insecurity State.” American Historical Review 94: 963989.

BruntonBruce. 1991. “An Historical Perspective on the Future of the Military-Industrial Complex.” Social Science Journal 28: 4562.

BuppIrvin C., and DerianJean-Claude. 1978. Light Water: How the Nuclear Dream Dissolved. New York: Basic Books.

CBO [Congressional Budget Office]. 1988. The B-1B Bomber and Options for Enhancements. Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, August.

CEA [Council of Economic Advisers]. 2013. Economic Report of the President 2013. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, March.

CraigCampbell. 1998. Destroying the Village: Eisenhower and Thermonuclear War. New York: Columbia University Press.

Craven, FrankWesley, and Lea CateJames, eds. 1951/1983. The Army Air Forces in World War II: vol. 3, Europe: Argument to V-E Day, January 1944 to May 1945. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Reprinted Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History.

DeLongElizabeth J., BarnhartJames C., and CagleMary T.. 1984. History of the Shillelagh Missile System, 1958–1982. N.p.: u.s. Army Missile Command, 17 August.

DockrillSaki. 1996. Eisenhower’s New-Look National Security Policy, 1953–6. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

DOE [Department of Energy]. 2002. Restricted Data Declassification Decisions 1946 to the Present (RDD-8). Washington, DC: Department of Energy, 1 January.

DreznerJeffrey A., SmithGiles K., HorganLucille E., RogersCurt, and SchmidtRachel. 1992. Maintaining Future Military Aircraft Design Capability, R-4199. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

DuncanFrancis. 1990. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press.

FeaverPeter Douglas. 1992. Guarding the Guardians: Civilian Control of Nuclear Weapons in the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

FeickertAndrew. 2011. Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress, RS22707. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 29 March.

FordhamBenjamin O. 1998. Building the Cold War Consensus: The Political Economy of u.s. National Security Policy, 1949–51. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

FriedbergAaron L. 2000. In the Shadow of the Garrison State: America’s Anti-Statism and Its Cold War Grand Strategy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

FutrellRobert Frank. 1989. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1961–1984, vol. 2. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, December.

GAO [General Accounting Office]. 2004. Defense Acquisitions: Stronger Management Practices Are Needed to Improve DOD’s Software-Intensive Weapon Acquisitions, GAO-04–393. Washington, DC: u.s. General Accounting Office, March.

GilmourRobert S., and MinkoffEric 1994. “Producing a Reliable Weapons System: The Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM).” In GilmourRobert S. and HalleyAlexis A., eds., Who Makes Public Policy? The Struggle for Control between Congress and the Executive, 195218. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.

GoldfischerDavid. 1993. The Best Defense: Policy Alternatives for u.s. Nuclear Strategy from the 1950s to the 1990s. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

GriffinJohn M. 2005. C-5A Galaxy Systems Engineering Case Study. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Institute of Technology, 10 March.

Gropman, AlanL. 1986. “Discussion and Comments.” In BorowskiHarry R., ed., Military Planning in the Twentieth Century, 24448. Proceedings of the Eleventh Military History Symposium, 10–12 October 1984. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History.

HackemerKurt. 2001. The u.s. Navy and the Origins of the Military-Industrial Complex, 1847–1883. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press.

HansenChuck. 1988. US Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History. New York: Orion, 1988.

HawthorneWilliam Rede. 1957. “Some Aerodynamic Problems of Aircraft Engines,” Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences 24 no. 10: 71330.

HermanReinhold W. 1963. “How Far is Way-Out?Army Information Digest 18 no. 10 (October): 2732.

HewlettRichard G., and DuncanFrancis. 1969. Atomic Shield, 1947/1952: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, vol. 2. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

HewlettRichard G., and DuncanFrancis. 1974. Nuclear Navy, 1946–1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

ImmermanRichard H. 1990. “Confessions of an Eisenhower Revisionist: An Agonizing Reappraisal.” Diplomatic History 14 no. 3 (July): 31942.

JohnsonRobert S. 1980. “The Changing Nature of the u.s. Navy Ship Design Process.” Naval Engineers Journal 92 no. 2 (April): 88113.

KasselBen, CooperSeth, and MacKennaAdrian. 2010. “Rebuilding the NAVSEA Early Stage Ship Design Environment.” Paper presented at ASNE Day 2010: Engineering the Affordable Global Navy through Innovation, American Society of Naval Engineers, Arlington, VA, 8–9 April. Available online at url: https://www.navalengineers.org/publications/symposiaproceedings/Pages/ASNEDay2010Proceedings.aspx.

KinnardDouglas. 1977. President Eisenhower and Strategy Management: A Study in Defense Politics. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

KnaackMarcelle Size. 1988. Encyclopedia of u.s. Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems, vol. 2, Post-World War II Bombers, 1945–1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History.

KoistinenPaul A.C. 2004. Arsenal of World War II: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1940–1945. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

KolkowiczRoman. 1983. “Military Strategy and Political Interests: The Soviet Union and the United States.” In BrodieBernard, IntriligatorMichael D., and KolkowiczRoman, eds., National Security and International Stability, 27399. Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain.

KotzNick. 1988. Wild Blue Yonder: Money, Politics, and the B-1 Bomber. New York: Pantheon.

LaytonEdwin T.Jr. 1971. The Revolt of the Engineers: Social Responsibility and the American Engineering Profession. Cleveland, OH: Press of Case Western Reserve University.

LefflerMelvyn P. 1992. A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

LeggeJ. Michael. 1983. Theater Nuclear Weapons and the NATO Strategy of Flexible Response, R-2964-FF. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, April.

LinnBrian McAllister. 2007. The Echo of Battle: The Army’s Way of War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

LischkaJohannes R. 1977. “Armor Plate: Nickel and Steel, Monopoly and Profit.” In Benjamin Franklin Cooling, ed., War, Business, and American Society: Historical Perspectives on the Military-Industrial Complex, 4358. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press.

LoClarence Y.H. 1982. “Theories of the State and Business Opposition to Increased Military Spending.” Social Problems 29 no. 4 (April): 42438.

LorellMark. 2003. The u.s. Combat Aircraft Industry, 1909–2000: Structure, Competition, Innovation, MR-1696. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

McNaugherThomas L. 1984. The M16 Controversies: Military Organizations and Weapons Acquisition. New York: Praeger.

MarschakT.A. 1964. The Role of Project Histories in the Study of R&D, P-2850. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, January.

MillerRonald, and SawersDavid. 1968. The Technical Development of Modern Aviation. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

NRC [National Research Council]. 2003. The Impact of Academic Research on Industrial Performance. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NRC [National Research Council]. 2011. Evaluation of u.s. Air Force Preacquisition Technology Development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NRDC [Natural Resources Defense Council]. N.d. “Archive of Nuclear Data: Table of u.s. Nuclear Warheads.” Available online at url: http://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/nudb/datab9.asp.

NSC [National Security Council]. 1953. NSC 162/2: Basic National Security Policy. Washington, DC: National Security Council, 30 October.

NSF [National Science Foundation]. 1963. Federal Funds for Science XI: Fiscal Years 1961, 1962, and 1963, NSF 6311. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.

OASD(AE) [Office of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Atomic Energy)]. 1978. History of the Custody and Deployment of Nuclear Weapons (U): July 1945 through September 1977. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Atomic Energy), February.

OMB [Office of Management and Budget]. 2013. Historical Tables: Budget of the u.s. Government, Fiscal Year 2014. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

OUSD(C) [Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)]. 2013. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2014. Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), May.

PolmarNorman, and MooreKenneth J.. 2004. Cold War Submarines: The Design and Construction of u.s. and Soviet Submarines. Washington, DC: Brassey’s.

PooleWalter S. 1998. History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy, vol. 4, 1950–1952. Washington, DC: Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

PorterGene, BrianGladstoneGordonC.Vance, KarvonidesNicholasKneeceR.RoyceJr., MandelbaumJay, and O’NeilWilliam D.. 2009. The Major Causes of Cost Growth in Defense Acquisition, vol. 2: Main Body, IDA Paper P-4531. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses, December.

PotterMichael C. 1995. Electronic Greyhounds: The Spruance-Class Destroyers. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press.

ProudfootSteven. 2008. Federal Scientists and Engineers: 2003–2005, Detailed Statistical Tables, NSF 09-302. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, November.

RathjensGeorge W., Jr. 1959. “NATO Strategy: Total War.” In KnorrKlaus, ed., NATO and American Security, 6597. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

ReillyCorinne. 2011. “Navy Says Trouble-plagued San Antonio Is Ready.” Virginian-Pilot [Norfolk], 4 August.

RickettsM.V. 2011. “NAVSEA Technical and Acquisition Personnel.” Paper presented at ASNE Day 2011: Thinking Outside the Hull, American Society of Naval Engineers, Arlington, VA, 10–11 February. Available online at url: https://www.navalengineers.org/EVENTS/PASTEVENTS/ASNEDAY11/AUTHOPRESENTERCENTER/Pages/ASNEDayPapers.aspx.

RomanPeter J. 1995. Eisenhower and the Missile Gap. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

SapolskyHarvey M. 1972. The Polaris System Development: Bureaucratic and Programmatic Success in Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

SherwinC.W. and IsensonR.S.. 1966. First Interim Report on Project Hindsight (Summary). Washington, DC: Department of Defense, Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, 13 October.

SimonHerbert A. 1969. The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

SpinneyFranklin C. 1980. “Defense Facts of Life.” Staff paper. Department of Defense, 5 December.

StewartIrvin. 1948. Organizing Scientific Research for War: The Administrative History of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Boston: Little, Brown.

TrimbleWilliam F. 1990. Wings for the Navy: A History of the Naval Aircraft Factory, 1917–1956. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press.

TurnbullArchibald D., and LordClifford L.. 1949. History of United States Naval Aviation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

WerrellKenneth P. 1998. “Did USAF Technology Fail in Vietnam? Three Case Studies.” Airpower Journal 12 no. 1 (Spring): 8799.

WhiteGerald T. 1949. “Financing Industrial Expansion for War: The Origin of the Defense Plant Corporation Leases.” Journal of Economic History 9 no. 2 (November): 15683.

ZelizerJulian E. 2010. Arsenal of Democracy: The Politics of National Security–From World War II to the War on Terrorism. New York: Basic Books.

Figures

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 33 33 11
Full Text Views 4 4 4
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0