Ever since its invention around the beginning of the 4th century bc artillery found employment not only during sieges, but also in the field. By the time of the Roman principate, artillery was regularly employed as field artillery, and to considerable effect; field artillery was both an integral and an important element of Roman land forces. The present article focuses on the operational challenges posed by integrating artillery into a land battle, which were considerable, but obviously met by the Romans – though unfortunately the evidence is mostly insufficient to reconstruct Roman operating procedures.
GeschwindeMichael et al. 2013. “Das Harzhorn-Ereignis—Die Archäologie einer römisch-germanischen Konfrontation im 3. Jh. n. Chr. Rekonstruktion einer Schlacht.” In Pöppelmann Roms vergessener Feldzug294–348.
ZimmermannAlexander. 1999. “Zwei ähnlich dimensionierte Torsionsgeschütze mit unterschiedlichen Konstruktionsprinzipien: Rekonstruktionen nach Originalteilen aus Cremona (Italien) und Lyon (Frankreich).” Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies10: 137–41.