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See, for example, Dore Gold, “Ties Between Al Qaeda and Hamas in Mideast Are Long and Frequent”, San Francisco Chronicle (online), 5 March 2006, and Glenn Greenwald, “The Price of Our Middle East Policy”, Salon.com, 24 January 2010.
See, for example, Derek Gregory, “Palestine and the ‘War on Terror’”, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, vol. 24, no. 1 (2004): pp. 183-195.
See, for example, Dennis Ross, “Bin Laden’s Terrorism Isn’t About the Palestinians”, The New York Times, 12 October 2001. Former CIA official Ray McGovern documented a systematic down-playing of the Palestine-al-Qāʿida connection in US media reporting and argued that “presidential candidates and the U.S. Establishment in general are hyper-allergic to discussing how U.S. support for Israeli policies toward the Palestinians encourages the recruitment of anti-American terrorists”; Ray McGovern, “Cheney Goofs on Israel”, Consortiumnews.com, 22 May 2009.
See, for example, Idean Salehyan, Rebels Without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009) and Jeffrey Checkel (ed.), Transnational Dynamics of Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
See, for example, Thomas Risse-Kappen, Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures, and International Institutions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995); Jackie Smith, Charles Chatfield, and Ron Pagnucco (eds.), Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics: Solidarity Beyond the State (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997). More recent contributions include Donatella Della Porta & Sidney Tarrow (eds.), Transnational Protest & Global Activism: People, Passions, and Power (Oxford, etc.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005); and Sidney Tarrow, The New Transnational Activism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
See, for example, Ely Karmon, Coalitions Between Terrorist Organizations: Revolutionaries, Nationalists and Islamists (Leiden: Brill, 2005) and Paul Chamberlin, “The Struggle Against Oppression Everywhere: The Global Politics of Palestinian Liberation”, Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 47, no. 1 (January 2011): pp. 25-41.
Jake Lipton, “The War of Words Between Hamas and al-Qaeda”, Policy Watch, no. 1254 (Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 28 June 2007); Barak Mendelsohn, “Al-Qaeda’s Palestinian Problem”, Survival, vol. 51, no. 4 (September 2009): pp. 71-86; Mary Habeck, “Al-Qa’ida and Hamas: The Limits of Salafi-Jihadi Pragmatism”, CTC Sentinel, vol. 3, no. 2 (February 2010): pp. 5ff.; Marc Lynch, “Islam Divided Between Salafi-jihad and the Ikhwan”, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, vol. 33, no. 6 (May 17, 2010): pp. 467-487; Reuven Paz, “Jihadists and Nationalist Islamists: Al-Qa’ida and Hamas”, in Assaf Moghadam and Brian Fishman (eds.), Fault Lines in Global Jihad: Organizational, Strategic, and Ideological Fissures (London: Routledge, 2011): pp. 203-219; a small subset of the literature emphasises—and in our view exaggerates—the organizational connections and ideological affinities between Ḥamās and al-Qāʿida; see, for example, Jonathan Dahoah-Halevi, “The Growing Hamas-Al Qaeda Connection”, Jerusalem Issue Brief, vol. 7, no. 1 (2007).
Asaf Maliach, “Abdullah Azzam, al-Qaeda, and Hamas: Concepts of Jihad and Istishhad”, Military and Strategic Affairs, vol. 2, no. 2 (2010): pp. 79-93; The Influence of the Legacy of Global Jihad on Hamas (Center for Special Studies–Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center, November 2004), http://www.terrorism-info.org.il/en/article/19256 (accessed 5 July 2013).
Khaled Hroub, “Salafi Formations in Palestine and the Limits of a De-Palestinised Milieu”, Holy Land Studies, vol. 7, no. 2 (2008): pp. 157-181; Rafid Fadhil Ali, “Al-Qaeda’s Palestinian Inroads”, Jamestown Terrorism Monitor, vol. 6, no. 8 (17 April 2008); Are Hovdenak, Al-Qaida—a Challenge for Hamas? (Kjeller: Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, January 2009); Jean-Pierre Filiu, “The Brotherhood Vs. Al-Qaeda: A Moment of Truth?”, Current Trends in Islamist Ideology, vol. 9 (2009): pp. 52-59; Kim Cragin, “Al Qaeda Confronts Hamas: Divisions in the Sunni Jihadist Movement and its Implications for U.S. Policy”, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, vol. 32, no. 7 (29 July 2009): pp. 576-590; Matthew Levitt, Yoram Cohen, and Becca Wasser, Deterred but Determined: Salafi-Jihadi Groups in the Palestinian Arena (Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, January 2010); Benedetta Berti, “Salafi-Jihadi Activism in Gaza: Mapping the Threat”, CTC Sentinel, vol. 3, no. 5 (2010): pp. 5-9; Leila Stockmarr, Gaza’s New Islamists: The Atomization of Palestinian Islamism Since 2006 (Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, 2011); Radical Islam in Gaza (Brussels: International Crisis Group, 29 March 2011).
Thomas Hegghammer, Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and pan-Islamism Since 1979 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 111.
Matthew Levitt, “Could Hamas Target the West?”, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, vol. 30, no. 11 (2007): pp. 925-945.
Matthew Levitt, “Israel as an Al-Qa’ida Target: Sorting Rhetoric from Reality”, CTC Sentinel, vol. 2, no. 10 (2009): pp. 12-15.
See Bruce Lawrence (ed.), Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama Bin Laden (London & New York: Verso, 2005) and Laura Mansfield, His Own Words: A Translation of the Writings of Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri (TLG Publications, 2006).
Thomas Hegghammer, “Osama Bin Laden’s True Priorities”, The Guardian (online), 3 December 2007. The report in question is Thomas Hegghammer, Dokumentasjon om al-Qaida: Intervjuer, kommunikéer og andre primærkilder, 1990–2002 [Documentation on al-Qaida: Interviews, Communiqués and Other Primary Sources, 1990–2002] (Kjeller: Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI/Rapport), 2002). The 2001 video is al-Sahab, “State of the Ummah” (2001), available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_qosX7EaHM (accessed 3 July 2013).
Bruce Lawrence, Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama Bin Laden (London: Verso, 2005), p. 60.
Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (New York: Penguin, 2004), p. 251.
Matthew Levitt, “Al Qaeda Targeting Israel: Between Rhetoric and Reality”, Orbis, vol. 54, no. 3 (2010): pp. 413-425.
Asaf Maliach, “Bin Ladin, Palestine and al-Qa‘ida’s Operational Strategy”, Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 44, no. 3 (May 2008): pp. 353-375; Yoram Schweitzer, “The Terrorism Threat Against Israel from al-Qaeda and Global Jihad”, Military and Strategic Affairs, vol. 2, no. 1 (2010): pp. 21-28.
Michael Elliott, “The Shoe Bomber’s World”, Time, 16 February 2002.
See, for example, Petter Nesser, Jihad In Europe: A Survey of the Motivations for Sunni Islamist Terrorism in Post-Millennium Europe (Kjeller: Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI/Report), 2004) pp. 32, 36f., 48, 54, 57, 60, and 65; Hegghammer, Jihad in Saudi Arabia, pp. 133-138.
Hegghammer, Jihad in Saudi Arabia, p. 118.
Anonymous, Through Our Enemies’ Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America (Washington: Brassey’s Inc., 2002); Bruce Riedel, The Search for Al Qaeda: Its Leadership, Ideology, and Future (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2008); Paul R. Pillar, “Kerry’s Peace Diplomacy”, The National Interest (online), 2 July 2013; Statement of General David H. Petraeus (Washington, D.C., 2010), http://www.armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2010/03%20March/Petraeus%2003-16-10.pdf (accessed 3 July 2013). Another outspoken former CIA official is Ray McGovern, but he appears not to have worked on jihadism while at the CIA.
Paul R. Pillar, “Palestine, the Extremist Cause”, The National Interest (online), 18 March 2012.
Ḥāzim al-Amīn, Al-Salafī al-Yatīm: Al-Wajh al-Filisṭīnī li-“l-Jihād al-ʿĀlamī” wa-“l-Qāʿida” (Beirut: Dār al-Sāqī, 2011).
Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), pp. 185-190. In fact, none of the 172 are coded as Palestinian by Sageman himself, but our supplemental research revealed that at least two (Abū Qatāda al-Filisṭīni and Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn Ḥusayn, aka “Abū Zubayda”) are of Palestinian extraction.
William McCants (ed.), Militant Ideology Atlas (West Point: Combating Terrorism Center, 2006). The source texts analysed in the Atlas came from the Minbar al-Tawḥīd wa-l-Jihād website, the largest online repository of jihādī literature. The individuals we recognized as Palestinians were ʿAbdallāh ʿAzzām, Abū Qatāda al-Filisṭīnī, and Abū Muḥammad al-Maqdisī.
Vahid Brown, “A Mujahid’s Bookbag”, Jihadica, 21 December 2009. The Palestinian authors are: Abū l-Nūr al-Maqdisī, Abū Qatāda al-Filisṭīnī, Abū Muḥammad al-Maqdisī, and ʿAbdallāh ʿAzzām.
Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage, 2001), pp. 73-76, 97. For a very interesting insider perspective into how the Balfour Declaration and its precise wording came about, see Chaim Weizmann, Trial and Error (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1949), pp. 252-262.
Tom Segev, One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs under the British Mandate (transl. Haim Watzman) (New York: Owl Books, 1999).
Morris, Righteous, pp. 121-160.
William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East (second edition) (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000), p. 293.
Eugene L. Rogan, “Jordan and 1948: The Persistence of an Official History”, in: Eugene L. Rogan & Avi Shlaim (eds.), The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948 (Cambridge, etc.: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 104-124.
Antonius, Arab, pp. 282-286, 437ff.
Avi Shlaim, The Politics of Partition: King Abdullah, the Zionists, and Palestine 1921–1951 (Oxford, etc.: Oxford University Press, 1998); Mary C. Wilson, King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan (Cambridge, etc.: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 103-128.
Kimberly Katz, Jordanian Jerusalem: Holy Places and National Spaces (Gainesville, FL, etc.: University Press of Florida, 2005), p. 54; Adnan Abu-Odeh, Jordanians, Palestinians & the Hashemite Kingdom in the Middle East Peace Process (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1999), pp. 27-32; Sami Al-Khazendar, Jordan and the Palestine Question: The Role of Islamic and Left Forces in Foreign Policy-Making (n.p.: Ithaca Press, 1997), pp. 51f.
Yezid Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (Oxford, etc.: Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 80-87.
Yezid Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (Oxford, etc.: Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 95-100.
Alan Hart, Arafat: A Political Biography (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984), p. 235, cited in Baruch Kimmerling & Joel S. Migdal, The Palestinian People: A History (Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2003), p. 274.
During the peace conference in Madrid in 1991, the Palestinians were represented by a joint Palestinian-Jordanian delegation, but this was more because of Israeli demands than because of Jordanian ambitions to speak on behalf of the Palestinians. Moreover, during the conference, the Palestinian delegation was quite independent and in frequent consultation with the PLO in Tunis. See Morris, Righteous, p. 614.
Philip Mattar, “The Mufti of Jerusalem and the Politics of Palestine”, MEJ, vol. 42, no. 2 (1988): pp. 234f.
Philip Mattar, “The Mufti of Jerusalem and the Politics of Palestine”, MEJ, vol. 42, no. 2 (1988): pp. 235-239. See also Mattar’s The Mufti of Jerusalem: Al-Hajj Amin al-Husayni and the Palestinian National Movement (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992).
See Abd al-Fattah Muhammad El-Awaisi, The Muslim Brothers and the Palestine Question, 1928–1947 (London & New York: I.B. Tauris, 1998), especially pp. 150-199.
Meir Hatina, Islam and Salavation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement (Tel Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, 2001), pp. 23-26.
Meir Hatina, Islam and Salavation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement (Tel Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, 2001), pp. 28-38.
Ziad Abu-Amr, Islamic Fundamentalism in the West Bank and Gaza: Muslim Brotherhood and Islamic Jihad (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994), pp. 23-27.
Erik Freas, “Hajj Amin al-Husayni and the Haram al-Sharif: A Pan-Islamic or Palestinian Nationalist Cause?”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 39, no. 1 (2012): 39ff., 49ff.
Wagemakers, Quietist, p. 3.
Gilles Kepel, The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West (transl. Pascale Ghazaleh) (Cambridge, MA: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 2004), pp. 170-174, 179f.; Saeed Shehabi, “The Role of Religious Ideology in the Expansionist Policies of Saudi Arabia”, in: Madawi al-Rasheed (ed.), Kingdom without Borders: Saudi Arabia’s Political, Religious and Media Frontiers (London: Hurst & Co., 2008), pp. 183-197.
Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (transl. Anthony F. Roberts) (Cambridge, MA: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 2002), pp. 69-73.
Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (transl. Anthony F. Roberts) (Cambridge, MA: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 2002), pp. 136-144, 147f.
Berti, “Salafi”, pp. 5-9; Cohen & Levitt with Wasser, Deterred; ICG, Radical.
Mary Habeck, “Al-Qaʿida and Hamas: The Limits of Salafi Jihadi Pragmatism”, CTC Sentinel, vol. 3, no. 2 (February 2010): pp. 5ff.
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