“Jews, Be Ottomans!” Zionism, Ottomanism, and Ottomanisation in the Hebrew-Language Press, 1890–1914


in Die Welt des Islams
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In recent years the study of national and civic identities in the later Ottoman period has revealed huge degrees of complexity among previously homogenised groups, none more so that the Jewish population of the Sublime State. Those Jews who moved to the Ottoman Empire from the 1880s as part of a burgeoning expression of Jewish nationalism developed a complex relationship with an Ottomanist identity that requires further consideration. Through an examination of the Hebrew-language press in Palestine, run largely by immigrant Zionist Jews, complemented by the archival records of the Ottoman state and parliament, this paper aims to show the complexities of the engagement between Ottoman and Jewish national identities. The development of Jewish nationalism by largely foreign Jews came with an increase in suspicion from the Ottoman elites, sometimes manifesting itself in outright anti-Semitism, and strong expressions of nationalism in the Hebrew press were denounced both by Ottoman and non- and anti-nationalist Jewish populations. The controversy over immigrant Jewish land purchases in Palestine from the 1890s led to a number of discussions over how far foreign Jews could and should embrace an Ottoman cultural and political identity, with cultural, labour, and political Zionists taking different positions. The issue of Ottomanisation should also be taken in the context of the post-1908 political landscape in the Ottoman Empire, with separatist nationalisms increasingly under the spotlight, and the debates among the different forms of Jewish nationalism increasingly focusing on the limits of performative and civic Ottoman nationalism.


“Jews, Be Ottomans!” Zionism, Ottomanism, and Ottomanisation in the Hebrew-Language Press, 1890–1914


in Die Welt des Islams

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2

 See: Ghil’ad Zuckermann“A New Vision of Israeli Hebrew: Theoretical and Practical Implications of Analysing Israel’s Main Language as a Semi-Engineered Semito-European Hybrid Language”Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 5 no. 1 (2006): 57–71.

4

 CamposOttoman Brothers 61; Kemal Karpat Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History: Selected Articles and Essays (Leiden: Brill 2003) 113ff. For the text of the 1869 law see: Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivleri (BOA) A.Y.EE.41/133.

7

 TevfikMillet-i İsrāʾilīye58.

9

 Theodore HerzlDer Judenstaat: Versuch einer Modernen Lösung der Judenfrage (Leipzig & Wien: M. Breitenstein’s Verlags-Buchhandlung1896) 11. See: Anita Shapira “Anti-Semitism and Zionism” Modern Judaism 15 no. 3 (1995): 215–32.

10

 HerzlDer Judenstaat28.

16

 Marc BaerThe Dönme: Jewish Converts Muslim Revolutionaries and Secular Turks (Stanford: Stanford University Press2010) 97–108.

21

 Hasan KayalıArabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism Arabism and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire 1908–1918 (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press1997) 23f. On education in the later Ottoman period see: Benjamin Fortna Imperial Classroom: Islam the State and Education in the Late Ottoman Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002).

38

 Mordechai Eliyav“Peʿilotam shel natzigei ha-maʿtzamot ha-zarot be-Eretz Yiśra⁠ʾel be-maʿavaḳ ʿal ha-ʿaliyah ha-rekhishat ḳarḳaʿot be-sof ha-meʾah ha-19”Ḳatedrah 26 (1982): 117–32.

47

 KayalıArabs and Young Turks 24 31.

64

 Esther Benbassa“Zionism and the Ottoman Empire at the End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century”Studies in Zionism 11 no. 2 (1990): 127–41 at 140.

80

 Ebüzziya TevfikMillet-i İsrāʾilīye78; Julia Phillips Cohen Becoming Ottomans: Sephardi Jews and Imperial Citizenship in the Modern Era (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2014) 1f. 132–42.

86

 Kemal KarpatTurkey’s Politics: The Transition to a Multi-Party System (Princeton: Princeton University Press1959) 11.

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