From 1917 to 1937: The Muftī, the Turkologist, and Stalin’s Terror


in Die Welt des Islams
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The Tatar religious scholar Rizaeddin Fakhreddinov (1859-1936) is well-known as a Jadīd publicist and historian, but his time as qāḍī and muftī of Soviet Russia (1918-36) is still unexplored. Muftī Fakhreddinov witnessed the Bolsheviks’ gradual elimination of all Islamic community life. In 1935 he considered saving his personal archive from de­­struction by transferring it to the Institute of Oriental Studies in Leningrad, the director of which, Turkologist Aleksandr N. Samoilovich (1880-1938), enjoyed his trust. But Fakhreddinov passed away in 1936, and in 1937 the NKVD constructed a group case against Muslim historians and philologists into which Samoilovich and Fakhreddinov’s sons were also drawn. After Stalin’s death in 1953, the “rehabilitation” of these victims of state terror was slow and selective, and scholarship on Islam in Russia was severely crippled. Only the late 1980s and the 1990s brought a window of opportunity for revisiting the Bolsheviks’ destruction of the secular and Islamic elites.


From 1917 to 1937: The Muftī, the Turkologist, and Stalin’s Terror


in Die Welt des Islams

Sections

References

2

 Peter HopkirkSetting the East Ablaze: Lenin’s Dream of an Empire in Asia (London: John Murray1984).

9

 Stéphane A. Dudoignon“Djadidisme, mirasisme, islamisme”Cahiers du Monde Russe 37:1-2 (1996) 13-40; idem “Qu’est-ce que la ‘qadîmîya’? Éléments pour une sociologie du traditionalisme musulman en Islam de Russie et en Transoxiane (au tournant des XIXe et XXe siècles)” L’Islam de Russie: Conscience communautaire et autonomie politique chez les Tatars de la Volga et de l’Oural depuis le XVIIIe siècle ed. by Stéphane A. Dudoignon Dämir Is’haqov and Räfyq Möhämmätshin (Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose 1997) 207-25.

15

 Danil Azamatov“The Muftis of the Orenburg Spiritual Assembly in the 18th and 19th Centuries: The Struggle for Power in Russia’s Muslim Institution”Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries vol. 2: Inter-regional and Inter-ethnic Relationsed. by Anke von Kügelgen Michael Kemper Allen J. Frank (Berlin: Klaus Schwarz 1998) 355-384; Robert Crews For Prophet and Tsar: Islam and Empire in Russia and Central Asia (Cambridge Mass. London: Harvard University Press 2009) 31-91.

19

 Rakhimkulova“Bibliografiia”120-33; M.G. Gosmanov and R.F. Märdanov “Shura” zhurnalïnïñ bibliografik kürsätkeche (Kazan: Milli Kitap 2000).

20

 BaishevObshchestvenno-politicheskie 47-54; on Afghānī’s stay in Russia (1887-89) cf. Nikki R. Keddie Sayyid Jamāl ad-Dīn “al-Afghānī”: A Political Biography (Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Press 1972) 292-305 (not using Russian/Tatar sources).

21

 Stéphane A. Dudoignon“Echoes to al-Manār among the Muslims of the Russian Empire: a Preliminary Research Note on Riza al-Din b. Fakhr al-Din and the Šūrā (1908-1918)” in Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission Transformation Communicationed. by Stéphane A. Dudoignon Komatsu Hisao and Kosugi Yasushi (London and New York: Routledge2006) 85-116esp. 114.

25

 TürkoğluRusya Türkleri Arasındaki Yenileşme 180-181.

26

 Aislu B. IunusovaIslam v Bashkortostane (Ufa: Ufimskii poligrafkombinat1999) 108.

27

 As’ma Sharaf“Vospominaniia ob ottse”Rizaetdin Fäkhretdin: Fänni-biografik jïyentïk111-46 here: 124-27.

29

 For Barudi see Munir IusupovGalimdzhan Barudi (Kazan: Tatarskoe knizhnoe izda­tel’stvo2003).

32

 Cf. Aidar Khabutdinov“Tardzhemani, Kashshaf (1877-1943)” in Islam na evropeiskom vostoke. Entsiklopedicheskii slovar’ ed. R.A. Nabiev et al. (Kazan: Magarif2004) 317-18.

34

 SultanbekovStalin i “tatarskii sled”99; cf. Iunusova Islam v Bashkortostane 131 134. Another co-author of the Pravda piece was Ṣābir Qāḍī; on him see Asar vol. 3 [2010 edition] 367. For the Soviet document that was the base of the Pravda article see Arapov (ed.) Islam vol. 2 doc. 10 57-58.

35

 IunusovaIslam v Bashkortostane135; Arapov/Kosach (eds) Islam vol. 1 p. 13.

38

 SultanbekovStalin i “tatarskii sled” 100-01.

40

 Ramzi Valeev“Rassmotrev sledstvennoe delo po obvineniiu Burgana Sharafa…”Gasïrlar awazï/Ekho vekovno. 1-2 (2001) 87-101.

42

 Sharaf“Vospominaniia ob ottse”135.

43

 Sharaf“Vospominaniia ob ottse”137; Sultanbekov Stalin i “Tatarskii sled”103; Kashshāf Tarjumānī “Mäkkä-yi mökärrimä nädväse mönāsäbätiylä” Islām mäjälläse 18 (1926) 743-37 [on the delegation]; on the Meccan congress cf. Martin Kramer Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses (New York: Columbia Univ. Press 1986) 105-22 186-91; Reinhard Schulze Islamischer Internationalismus im 20. Jahrhundert: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Islamischen Weltliga (Leiden: Brill 1990) 80-85.

48

 Sirena Bagavieva“Religiia vasha ostalas’ tol’ko v vashei vole…” (o tret’em s”ezde musul’man Vnutrennoi Rossii i Sibiri)”Gasïrlar awazï/Ekho vekov1-2 (1999) 102-25 esp. 123-24. Cf. Arapov/Kosach (eds) Islam vol. 1 doc. 11 82-83.

53

 Sharaf“Vospominaniia ob ottse”139.

54

 IunusovaIslam v Bashkortostane147.

55

 Indus Tagirov“Uchastnikov Kurban-bairama prigovorili k rasstrelu…”Gasïrlar awazï/Ekho vekov1-2 (1999) 126-35.

58

 SultanbekovStalin i “tatarskii sled”103.

61

 Sharaf“Vospominaniia ob ottse”140.

63

 Ingeborg BaldaufSchriftreform und Schriftwechsel bei den muslimischen Russland- und Sowjettürken 1850-1937 (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado1993) esp. ch. 9.

67

 Amirkhanov“Rizaeddin Fakhreddin kak istorik”34.

69

 Sharaf“Vospominaniia ob ottse”138.

70

 Bakhtiyar Babajanov“῾Ulamā’-Orientalists: Madrasa Graduates at the Soviet Institute of Oriental Studies” in Reassessing Orientalism: Interlocking Orientologies during the Cold War ed. by Michael Kemper and Artemy M. Kalinovsky (London: Routledge2015) 84-119here: 85-86.

72

 Diliara Usmanova“Rescuing the Tatar Muslim Heritage in the Soviet Union: The Expedition Diaries of Mirkasym A. Usmanov” in The Piety of Learning (forthcoming 2017).

75

 S.N Shingareeva“Formirovanie lichnogo arkhiva Rizaitdina Fakhretdinova v nauchnom archive BNTs UrO SSSR”Tvorchestvo94-104 here: 98. The original letter is supposedly kept in the Public Library in St. Petersburg (fond 671 no. 251).

78

 [The letter copy has 1334which must be a mistake for 1934.]

79

 For overviews see A.I. Kharisov“Kollektsiia rukopisei Rizaitdina Fakhretdinova v nauchnom archive BFAN SSSR”Tvorchestvo78-86; G.B. Khusainov “Rukopisnoe nasledie Rizy Fakhretdinova” [first published in 1973] Tvorchestvo 94-104.

81

 Mirkasїym GosmanovÜtkännän kilächäkkä. Ot proshlogo k budushchemu (Kazan: Tatarstan kitap näshriyäte1990) 65-68. According to Diliara M. Usmanova (personal message 12 March 2017) her father Mirkasym Usmanov once told her that when he came to Leningrad to work in the archive of IVAN Fakhreddinov’s package had still been unopened and he was the first to investigate these materials. This would suggest that Samoilovich never saw these items and that they might have survived the Stalin years due to the fact that they were still wrapped up.

82

 BaishevObshchestvenno-politicheskie172-73.

83

 GosmanovÜtkännän kilächäkkä 67-68.

90

 Suleiman Rakhimov“ʻVinovnoi sebia ne priznala’: Materialy sledstvennogo dela Mukhlisy Bobinskoi”Gasïrlar awazï/Ekho vekov 1-2 (2000) 217-23 here: 219.

92

 Jeff Eden“A Soviet Jihad against Hitler: Ishan Babakhan Calls Central Asian Muslims to War,” JESHO 59.1-2 (2016) 237-64 here: 238.

94

 Arslan Sharaf“Svedeniia o detiakh Rizaetdina Fakhretdinova” in Rizaetdin Fäkhretdin: Fänni-biografik jïyentïk189-92.

98

 Ashnin Alpatov Nasilov“Arkhivnye dokumenty o gibeli A.N. Samoilovicha”18.

101

 Ashnin/Alpatov/Nasilov“Arkhivnye dokumenty o gibeli A.N. Samoilovicha”8.

102

 Michael Kemper“Introduction”in: I.Y. Kratchkovsky Among Arabic Manuscripts: Memories of Libraries and Men (Leiden: Brill 2016) 1-24.

103

 Ashnin/Alpatov/Nasilov“Arkhivnye dokumenty o gibeli A.N. Samoilovicha”13.

106

 Ashnin/Alpatov/Nasilov“Arkhivnye dokumenty o gibeli A.N. Samoilovicha”20.

108

 Republished in M. GaynullinTatar ädäbiyatï. XIX yöz (Kazan: Tatarskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo1968) 630-70.

109

 Zinnat A. IshmukhametovSotsial’naia rol’ i evoliutsiia islama v Tatarii. Istoricheskie ocherki (Kazan: Tatknigoizdat1979) esp. 71-72.

111

 Sharaf“Vospominaniia ob ottse”146. Some of the Ufa conference papers were published in Tvorchestvo.

122

 Alfrid K. Bustanov“Peresmotr kontseptsii sovetskogo islama: Zainap Maksudova i izuchenie tatarskoi literatury” in Islam v mul’tikul’turnom mire. Musul’manskie dvizheniia i mekhanizmy vosproizvodstva ideologii islama v sovremennom informatsionnom prostranstve. 3-ii Kazanskii mezhdunarodnyi nauchnyi forum 2013 ed. by D.V. Brilev (Kazan 2014) 482-88; idem “Against Leviathan: On the Ethics of Islamic Poetry in Soviet Russia” in The Piety of Learning (forthcoming 2017).

123

 Muftii Ravil’ GainutdinIslam: otvet na vyzovy vremeni (Moscow: Eksmo2011) 32.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 31 31 17
Full Text Views 93 93 77
PDF Downloads 7 7 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0