Although Mohandas K. Gandhi died before ecological concern was a pervasive issue, his ethical and religious approach to the treatment of all fellow creatures, was founded on an identification with all that lives. Such an identification is a prerequisite to the understanding of the profound biological and spiritual interconnectedness advocated by the modem deep ecology movement. For Gandhi the broad ideal of ahimsa, or non-injury, was out of reach without such an awareness of the interdepency of all of life. And ahimsa was also impossible without 'self-purification', a largely ascetical life of renunciation of material and physical indulgence. Gandhi was an early pioneer of both the more-with-less approach to ecologically-sound living, and deep ecology's perspective of the oneness of all elements of the biosphere, and their spiritual link.