The Effect of Religion on the Effectiveness of Ecological Advertising

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology

Abstract

Attitudes toward ecological consumption can trigger environmentally responsible intentions and behaviors. Understanding how ecological messages can influence attitudes is essential to mitigate climate change. This paper analyzes how religious affiliation (or lack of), can influence attitudes toward green advertising and explores the role of religious affiliation in the effectiveness of ecological messages. The findings indicate that religious affiliation has an influence on the degree of effectiveness of each message. So, green communications can be a useful tool to persuade atheists to develop more sustainable attitudes when they are exposed the benefits that can be achieved with green behavior. However, persuasive environmental messages, in general, do not generate major changes of attitude among Catholics. Businesses, NGO s, states, educators and society in general should acknowledge that environmental discourses fostering sustainable behavior. Furthermore, messages depicting the problems of environmental behavior have no repercussion on atheists and little on Catholics.

  • Ajzen I. 2002. “Perceived behavioral control self-efficacy locus of control and the theory of planned behavior”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32(4):665–683.

  • Angelidis J. & Ibrahim N. 2004. “An exploratory study of the impact of degree of religiousness upon an individual’s corporate social responsiveness orientation”. Journal of Business Ethics 51(2):119–128.

  • Armitage C. & Connor M. 2001. “Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: a meta-analysis”. British Journal of Social Psychology 40(4):471–499.

  • Bagozzi R.P. 1988. An investigation into the role of intentions as mediators of the attitude-behavior relationship. Retrieved from http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/35379

  • Bakalash T. & Riemer H. 2013. “Exploring Ad-Elicited Emotional Arousal and Memory for the Ad Using fMRI”. Journal of Advertising 42(4):275–291. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2013.768065

  • Bang H.-K. Ellinger A.E. Hadjimarcou J. & Traichal P.A. 2000. “Consumer concern knowledge belief and attitude toward renewable energy: An application of the reasoned action theory”. Psychology & Marketing 17(6):449–468. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(200006)17:6<449::AID-MAR2>3.0.CO;2-8

  • Baugh A.J. 2019. “Explicit and Embedded Environmentalism: Challenging Normativities in the Greening of Religion”. Worldviews: Global Religions Culture and Ecology 1(aop):1–20. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685357-02301002

  • Bauman H.D. & Murray J. 2009. Reframing: From hearing loss to deaf gain. Deaf Studies Digital Journal1(1). Retrieved from http://dsdj.gallaudet.edu/assets/section/section2/entry19/DSDJ_entry19.pdf

  • Berger S. Wagner U. & Schwand C. 2012. “Assessing Advertising Effectiveness: The Potential of Goal-Directed Behavior”. Psychology and Marketing 29(6):411–421. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20530

  • Bering J.M. 2005. “The Evolutionary History of an Illusion: Religious Causal Beliefs in Children and Adults. In Origins of the Social Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and Child Development”. B. Ellis and D. Bjorklund eds. Pp. 411–437. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Bjørner T.B. Hansen L.G. & Russell C.S. 2004. “Environmental labeling and consumers’ choicean empirical analysis of the effect of the Nordic Swan”. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 47(3):411–434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2003.06.002

  • Brown S. Pamela M.H. & J. Jeffery I. 1998. “A Meta-Analysis of Relationships Between Ad-Evoked Feelings and Advertising Responses”. Journal of Marketing Research 35(February):114126.

  • Bulbulia J. 2004. “Religious costs as adaptations that signal altruistic intention”. Evolution and Cognition 10(1):19–38.

  • Chang C.-T. 2007. “Health-care product advertising: The influences of message framing and perceived product characteristics”. Psychology & Marketing 24(2):143–169. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20156

  • Chen M.-F. 2007. “Consumer attitudes and purchase intentions in relation to organic foods in Taiwan: Moderating effects of food-related personality traits”. Food Quality and Preference 18(7):1008–1021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2007.04.004

  • Cheng T. D.W. & Lynes J. 2011. “The Use of Message Framing in the Promotion of Environmentally Sustainable Behaviors”. Social Marketing Quarterly 17(2):48–62.

  • Choi Y. Paulraj A. & Shin J. 2013. “Religion or Religiosity: Which Is the Culprit for Consumer Switching Behavior?” Journal of International Consumer Marketing 25(4):262–280. https://doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2013.803901

  • Chuvieco E. Burgui M. & Gallego-Álvarez I. 2016. “Impacts of Religious Beliefs on Environmental Indicators: Is Christianity More Aggressive Than Other Religions?”. Worldviews: Global Religions Culture and Ecology20(3):251–271.

  • Clements J.M. 2018. “Measuring Actual Payment for Biodiversity Protection: The Influence of Religiously and Scientifically Framed Messages”. Worldviews: Global Religions Culture and Ecology 22(3):263–288. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685357-02203100

  • Cleveland M. Kalamas M. & Laroche M. 2012. “ “It’s not Easy Being Green”: Exploring Green Creeds Green Deeds and Internal Environmental Locus of Control”. Psychology & Marketing 29(5):293–305. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20522

  • Cook A.J. Kerr G.N. & Moore K. 2002. “Attitudes and intentions towards purchasing GM food”. Journal of Economic Psychology 23(5):557–572.

  • Davidson R.J. Ekman P. Saron C.D. Senulis J.A. & Friesen W.V. 1990. “Approach-withdrawal and cerebral asymmetry: Emotional expression and brain physiology”: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58(2):330.

  • Del Barrio García S. & Luque Martínez T. 2000. Análisis de ecuaciones estructurales en Técnicas de análisis de datos en investigación de mercados. Pirámide Madrid.

  • Delener N. 1990. “The Effects of Religious Factors on Perceived Risk in Durable Goods Purchase Decisions”. The Journal of Consumer Marketing 7(Summer):27–38.

  • Ellen P.S. Cobb-Walgren C. & Wiener J.L. 1991. “The role of perceived consumer effectiveness in motivating environmentally conscious behaviors”. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 10(2):102–117

  • Escalas J.E. & Stern B.B. 2003. “Sympathy and Empathy: Emotional Responses to Advertising Dramas”. Journal of Consumer Research 29(4):566–578. https://doi.org/10.1086/346251

  • Eurostat. 2010. Europe in figures—Eurostat yearbook 2010–. September 9 1010. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/5721265/KS-CD-10-220-EN.PDF/e47b231c-c411-4d4e-8cd6-e0257be4f2e6?version=1.0

  • Fam K.-S. 2008. “Attributes of Likeable Television Commercials in Asia”. Journal of Advertising Research 48(3):418. https://doi.org/10.2501/S0021849908080422

  • Fine E. 1990. “Social Marketing: Promoting the Causes of Public and Nonprofit Agencies”. Allyn & Bacon. Boston.

  • Finney S.J. & DiStefano C. 1996. “Non normal and categorical data in structural equation modeling”. In G.R. Hancock & R.O. Mueller (Eds.) Structural equations modeling: A second course Greenwich Connecticut USA: Information Age Publishing Inc.

  • Fischer P. Jonas E. Frey D. & Kastenmüller A. 2008. “Selective exposure and decision framing: The impact of gain and loss framing on confirmatory information search after decisions”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44(2):312–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2007.06.001

  • Francis J.J. Eccles M.P. Johnston M. Walker A. Grimshaw J. Foy R. Kaner E.F.S. Smith L. & Bonetti D. 2004. “Constructing questionnaires based on the theory of planned behaviour. A manual for health services researchers”. UK: University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  • Frazen G. (1994). “Advertising effectiveness”. London: NTC Publications.

  • Goodman J.S. & Blum T.C. 1996. “Assessing the non-random sampling effects of subject attrition in longitudinal research”. Journal of Management 4:627–652.

  • Gorn G.J. Chattopadhyay A. Sengupta J. & Tripathi S. 2004. “Waiting for the Web: How Screen Color Affects Time Perception”. Journal of Marketing Research 41(2):215.

  • Gregory-Smith D. Smith A. & Winklhofer H. 2013. “Emotions and dissonance in ‘ethical’ consumption choices”. Journal of Marketing Management 29(11–12):1201–1223. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2013.796320

  • Grim J. & Tucker M.E. 2014. “Ecology and religion”. Island Press.

  • Hair J. Anderson R. Tatham R. & Black W. 1999. “Análisis Multivariante. 5º ed”. Madrid: Prentice Hall.

  • Hartmann P. & Apaolaza-Ibáñez V. 2012. “Consumer attitude and purchase intention toward green energy brands: The roles of psychological benefits and environmental concern”. Journal of Business Research 65(9):1254–1263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.11.001

  • Hartmann P. & Apaolaza-Ibanez V. 2008. “Virtual Nature Experiences as Emotional Benefits in Green Product Consumption: The Moderating Role of Environmental Attitudes”. Environment and Behavior 40(6):818–842. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916507309870

  • Hartmann P. & Apaolaza-Ibez V. 2009. “Green advertising revisted: Conditional virtual nature experiences”. International Journal of Advertising 28(4):715. https://doi.org/10.2501/S0265048709200837

  • Hartmann P. Apaolaza V. D’Souza C. & Barrutia J.M. 2015. “Environmental threat appeals in green advertising: The role of fear arousal and coping efficacy”. International Journal of Advertising 33(4):741. https://doi.org/10.2501/IJA-33-4-741-765

  • Hathaway M.D. 2017. “Overcoming Fear Denial Myopia and Paralysis: Scientific and Spiritual Insights into the Emotional Factors Affecting Our Response to the Ecological Crisis”. Worldviews: Global Religions Culture and Ecology 21(2):175–193. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685357-02002100

  • Hegarty W’.H. & H.P. Sims. 1978. “Some Determinants of Unethical Decision Behavior: An Experiment”. Journal of Applied Psychology 63(4):451–457.

  • Helmig B. & J. Thaler. 2010. “On the Effectiveness of Social Marketing—What Do We Really Know?”. Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing 22(4):264–287.

  • Hirschman E.C. 1981. “American Jewish Ethnicity: Its Relationship to Some Selected Aspects of Consumer Behavior”. Journal of Marketing 45:102–110.

  • Holbrook M.B. & O’Shaughnessy J. 1984. “The role of emotion in advertising”. Psychology & Marketing 1(2):45–64. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.4220010206

  • Huang S. & Han S. 2014. “Shared beliefs enhance shared feelings: Religious/irreligious identifications modulate empathic neural responses”. Social Neuroscience 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470919.2014.934396

  • Hubert M. 2010. “Does Neuroeconomics Give New Impetus to Economic and Consumer Research?”. Journal of Economic Psychology 31(5):812–817.

  • Hulme M. 2008. “The conquering of climate: discourses of fear and their dissolution”. The Geographical Journal 174(1):5–16.

  • Hunt S.D. & S.J. Vitell (1993). “The General Theory of Marketing Ethics: A Retrospective and Revision”. In Smith and J.A. Quelch (Ed.) Ethics in Marketing pp. 775–784. Irwin: Homewood.

  • Janssens W. & Pelsmacker P.D. 2005. “Emotional or informative? Creative or boring? The effectiveness of different types of radio commercial”. International Journal of Advertising 24(3):373–394.

  • Joel D. 1994. “Good ethics is good for business: Ethical attributions and response to environmental advertising”. Journal of Business Ethics 13(11):873–886.

  • Kareklas I. Carlson J.R. & Muehling D.D. 2012. “The Role of Regulatory Focus and Self-View in “Green” Advertising Message Framing”. Journal of Advertising 41(4):25–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2012.10672455

  • Keller P.A. Lipkus I.M. & Rimer B.K. 2003. “Affect framing and persuasion”. Journal of Marketing Research 40(1):54–64.

  • Kennedy E.J. & Lawton L. 1998. “Religiousness and business ethics”. Journal of Business Ethics 17(2):163–175.

  • Ketelaar P.E. Konig R. Smit E.G. & Thorbjørnsen H. 2015. “In ads we trust. Religiousness as a predictor of advertising trustworthiness and avoidance”. Journal of Consumer Marketing 32(3):190–198. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-09-2014-1149

  • Kim J.-E. & Johnson K.K.P. 2013. “The Impact of Moral Emotions on Cause-Related Marketing Campaigns: A Cross-Cultural Examination”. Journal of Business Ethics 112(1):79–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1233-6

  • Kim Y. 2011. “Understanding green purchase: The influence of collectivism personal values and environmental attitudes and the moderating effect of perceived consumer effectiveness”. Seoul Journal of Business 17(1):65–92.

  • Kurup R.K. & Kurup P.A. 2003. “Hypothalamic digoxin hemispheric chemical digoxin and spirituality”. International Journal of Neuroscience 11(3):383–393.

  • Lang P.J. Bradley M.M. & Cuthbert B.N. 1999. “International affective picture system (IAPS): Technical manual and affective ratings”. Center for Research in Psychophysiology University of Florida: Gainesville FL.

  • Leiserowitz A. Maibach E. Roser-Renouf C. & Smith N. 2011. “Global warming’s six Americas May 2011”. Yale University and George Mason University. Retrieved from http://www.earthtosky.org/content/course-content/2012-mini-course/Knowledege_of_Audience/SixAmericasMay2011.pdf

  • Leonidou L.C. Leonidou C.N. Palihawadana D. & Hultman M. 2011. “Evaluating the green advertising practices of international firms: a trend analysis”. International Marketing Review 28(1):6–33. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651331111107080

  • Lu L.-C. Chang H.-H. & Chang A. 2015. “Consumer Personality and Green Buying Intention: The Mediate Role of Consumer Ethical Beliefs”. Journal of Business Ethics 127(1):205–219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-2024-4

  • Mackenzie S.B. Lutz R.J. & Belch G. 1986. “The role of attitude toward the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: a test of competing explanations”. Journal of Marketing Research 23:130–143.

  • Manrai L.A. Manrai A.K. Lascu D.-N. & Ryans J.K. 1997. “How green-claim strength and country disposition affect product evaluation and company image”. Psychology and Marketing 14(5):511–537. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199708)14:5<511::AID-MAR5>3.0.CO;2-B

  • Martinez-Fiestas M. Viedma del Jesus M.I. Sánchez-Fernández J. & Montoro-Rios F.J. 2015. “A Psychophysiological Approach For Measuring Response to Messaging: How Consumers Emotionally Process Green Advertising”. Journal of Advertising Research 55 (2):192–205. doi:10.2501/JAR-55-2-192-205.

  • McDaniel S.W. & Burnett J.J. 1990. “Consumer religiosity and retail store evaluative criteria”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 18:101–112.

  • Micu A.C. & Plummer J.T. 2010. “Measurable Emotions: How Television Ads Really Work—Patterns of Reactions to Commercials Can Demonstrate Advertising Effectiveness”. Journal of Advertising Research 50(2):137. https://doi.org/10.2501/S0021849910091300

  • Minton E.A. 2016. “Sacred Attributions: Implications for Marketplace Behavior”. Psychology & Marketing 33(6):437–448. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20889

  • Mokhlis S. 2006. “The Effect of Religiosity on Shopping Orientation: An Exploratory Study in Malaysia”. Journal of American Academy of Business 9:64–74.

  • Morales A.C. Wu E.C. & Fitzsimons G.J. 2012. “How Disgust Enhances the Effectiveness of Fear Appeals”. Journal of Marketing Research 49(3). https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.07.0364

  • Muraven M. Pogarski G. & Shmueli D. 2006. “Self-control depletion and the general theory of crime”. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 22:263–277.

  • O’Brien K. 2018. “The Earth in God’s Economy: Creation Salvation and Consummation in Ecological Perspective by Ernst M. Conradie”. Worldviews: Global Religions Culture and Ecology 22(2):187–198. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685357-02103011

  • O’Keefe D.J. & J.D. Jensen. 2006. “The Advantages of Compliance or the Disadvantages of Noncompliance? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relative Persuasive Effectiveness of Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Messages”. Communication Yearbook 30:1–43.

  • O’Keefe D.J. & Jensen J.D. 2007. “The relative persuasiveness of gain-framed loss-framed messages for encouraging disease prevention behaviors: A meta-analytic review”. Journal of Health Communication 12:623–644.

  • Ojala M. 2008. “Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling Among Young Adults”. Environment and Behavior 40(6):777–797. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916507308787

  • Orden Jiménez M.V. 2016. “El Barómetro Del CIS. Construcción de Informes Del Barómetro Con Software Libre”. Retrieved from https://idus.us.es/xmlui/handle/11441/43492.

  • Parameshwaran M.G. & Srivastava R.K. 2010. “A conceptual paper: should marketers consider religiosity in understanding consumer purchase behavior?”. Journal of Management 7(1):46–54.

  • Parry S. Jones R. Stern P. & Robinson M. 2013. “ ‘Shockvertising’: An exploratory investigation into attitudinal variations and emotional reactions to shock advertising: Attitudes and reactions to shock advertising”. Journal of Consumer Behaviour 12(2):112–121. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1430

  • Pascal V.J. Sprott D.E. & Muehling D.D. 2002. “The Influence of Evoked Nostalgia on Consumers’ Responses to Advertising: An Exploratory Study”. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising 24(1):39–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641734.2002.10505126

  • Passyn K. & Sujan M. 2006. “Selfaccountability Emotions and Fear Appeals: Motivating Behavior”. Journal of Consumer Research 32(4):583–589.

  • Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. 2008. “Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic”. Retrieved from http://www.pewforum.org/files/2013/05/report-religious-landscape-study-full.pdf

  • Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. 2012. “Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic”. Retrieved from http://www.people-press.org/2012/07/09/july-2012-religion-survey/

  • Pew Research Center. 2002. “Religion and Society”. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/topics/religious-affiliation/2002/

  • Putrevu S. & Swimberghek K. 2013. “The Influence of Religiosity on Consumer Ethical Judgments and Responses Toward Sexual Appeals”. Journal of Business Ethics 115(2):351–365. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1399-y

  • Reimann M. Schilke O. Weber B. Neuhaus C. & Zaichkowsky J. 2011. “Functional magnetic resonance imaging in consumer research: A review and application”. Psychology and Marketing 28(6):608–637. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20403

  • Riley M.T. 2017. “Christianity and Environmental Ethics Fifty Years after Historical Roots”. Worldviews: Global Religions Culture and Ecology 21(1):61–86 10.1163/15685357-02101005

  • Ritter R.S. Preston J.L. & Hernandez I. 2014. “Happy Tweets: Christians Are Happier More Socially Connected and Less Analytical Than Atheists on Twitter”. Social Psychological and Personality Science 5(2): 243–249. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550613492345

  • Rothman A.J. & Salovey P. 1997. “Shaping perceptions to motivate healthy behavior: The role of message framing”. Psychological Bulletin 121:3–19.

  • Salovey P. & Wegener D.T. 2003. “Communicating about health: Message framing persuasion and health behavior”. In Suls and K. Wallston (Eds.) Social psychology foundations of health and illness (54–81). Oxford UK: Blackwell.

  • Salvador R.O. Merchant A. & Alexander E.A. 2014. “Faith and Fair Trade: The Moderating Role of Contextual Religious Salience”. Journal of Business Ethics 121(3):353–371. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1728-9

  • Sánchez-Franco M.J. & Roldán J.L. 2005. “Web acceptance and usage model: A comparison between goal-directed and experiential web users”. Internet Research 15(1):21–48.

  • Shapiro K. 2018. “A Faith Built on Awe: Reframing Atheism”. Worldviews: Global Religions Culture and Ecology 22(3):199–215. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685357-02203103

  • Singhapakdi A. Marta J. Rallapalli K. & Rao P. 2000. “Towards an understanding of religiousness and marketing ethics: An empirical study”. Journal of Business Ethics 27(4):305–319.

  • Spence A. & Pidgeon N. 2010. “Framing and communicating climate change: The effects of distance and outcome frame manipulations”. Global Environmental Change 20(4):656–667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.07.002

  • Spence S. 2015. “Anticipated Guilt and Ethical Consumption: The Moderating Role of Consumers’ Socially Responsible Consumption Behaviour”. Retrieved from http://www.dr.library.brocku.ca/handle/10464/6372

  • Stern P.C. 2000. “Toward a Coherent Theory of Environmentally Significant Behaviour”. Journal of Social Issues 56(3):407–424.

  • Swimberghe K.R. Sharma D. & Flurry L.W. 2011. “Does a Consumer’s Religion Really Matter in the Buyer–Seller Dyad? An Empirical Study Examining the Relationship Between Consumer Religious Commitment Christian Conservatism and the Ethical Judgment of a Seller’s Controversial Business Decision”. Journal of Business Ethics 102(4):581–598. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-0829-6

  • Updegraff J.A. Sherman D.K. Luyster F.S. & Mann T.L. 2007. “The effects of message quality and congruency on perceptions of tailored health communications”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43(2):249–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2006.01.007

  • Vakratsas D. & Ambler T. 1999. “How Advertising Works: What do We Really Know?”. Journal of Marketing 63(1):26–43.

  • Vecchiato G. Astolfi L. De Vico Fallani F. Cincotti F. Mattia D. Salinari S. … Babiloni F. 2010. “Changes in Brain Activity During the Observation of TV Commercials by Using EEGGSR and HR Measurements”. Brain Topography 23(2):165–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10548-009-0127-0

  • Vitell S.J. & J.G.P. Paolillo. 2003. “Consumer Ethics: The Role of Religiosity”. Journal of Business Ethics 46:151–162.

  • Vitell S.J. J. Singh & J.G.P. Paolillo. 2007. “Consumers Ethical Beliefs: The Roles of Money Religiosity and Attitude Toward Business”. Journal of Business Ethics 73:369–379.

  • Vitell S.J. 2009. “The Role of Religiosity in Business and Consumer Ethics: A Review of the Literature”. Journal of Business Ethics 90(S2):155–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0382-8

  • Waller D.S. Fam K. & Zafer Erdogan B. 2005. “Advertising of controversial products: a crosscultural study”. Journal of Consumer Marketing 22(1):6–13. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760510576509

  • Weaver G. & Agle B. 2002. “Religiosity and ethical behavior inorganizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective”. Academy of Management Review 27(1):77–97.

  • Williams L.A. & DeSteno D. 2008. “Pride and perseverance: The motivational role of pride”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94(6):1007–1017.

  • White L. 1967. “The historical roots of our ecologic crisis”. Science 155(3767):1203–1207.

  • Youn S. & Kim H. 2008. “Antecedents of Consumer Attitudes toward Cause-Related Marketing”. Journal of Advertising Research 48(1):123.

  • Zajonc R.B. & Hazel Markus. 1982. “Affective and Cognitive Factors in Preference”. Journal of Consumer Research 9:123–1231.

  • Zaltman G. 2003. “How Consumers Think: Essential Insights into the Mind of the Market”. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

  • Zlatevska N. & Spence M.T. 2012. “Do Violent Social Cause Advertisements Promote Social Change? An Examination of Implicit Associations”. Psychology & Marketing 29(5):322–333. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20524

  • Zuckerman M. Silberman J. & Hall J.A. 2013. “The relation between intelligence and religiosity a meta-analysis and some proposed explanations”. Personality and Social Psychology Review 1088868313497266.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 62 62 62
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 0 0 0